The role of parental control practices in explaining children's diet and BMI.
ABSTRACT This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children's diets and to assess the impact of these practices on children's dietary patterns and their BMI. A cross-sectional survey of 518 parents with children aged 4-7 years was carried out in 18 primary schools across the South of England. Measures included aspects of parental control practices and the child's diet. Results showed that older parents with a lower BMI and who were stay at home parents used more "snack overt control", "snack covert control" and "meal covert control" and those with more education used more covert control strategies. In contrast, male, non-white parents with younger children used more "pressure to eat". In terms of the children's diet, the results showed links between parental and child demographics and aspects of unhealthy and healthy food intake. In addition, links were also found for parental control practices. For example, eating more unhealthy snacks was related to less covert control and more pressure to eat, eating fruit and vegetables was related to higher levels of both overt and covert control over meals and less pressure to eat and being neophobic was related to less covert control over meals and more pressure to eat. The children's BMIs were unrelated to any variables measured in the study.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of parental age at childbirth on insulin sensitivity and other metabolic outcomes in overweight middle-aged males.American Journal of Human Biology 11/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Overt and covert control are novel constructs representing two different parental feeding practices with regard to the child’s ability to detect them. Preliminary research indicates that covert control is linked to healthier diet and lower child weight status. In this study, we report the first psychometric validation of the original measures of overt and covert control outside the UK in a large sample of parents of preschoolers. Methods Based on records from the population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3 007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Out of those, 876 returned the measures of overt and covert control together with a background questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Test-retest data were obtained from 64% (n = 563) of these mothers. The mean age of the mothers was 35.6 years; their mean BMI was 24.1, 31.5% were overweight or obese. The children were on average 4.5 years old; 48 % were girls, 12.8% were overweight or obese. Results While the fit for the original 9-item 2-factor model was poor, shorter 8- and 6-item version were supported by confirmatory factor analysis (CFI > 0.95, RMSEA < 0.05). Internal and test-retest reliability of the shorter version was good (ICC = 0.65-0.71). Results also suggest that the factor structure and loadings were invariant (i.e., did not significantly differ) overtime and between child sexes. Both overt and covert control factors were moderately correlated with CFQ monitoring. Overt control was also moderately related to CFQ pressure and weakly correlated with CFQ restriction. Covert control, on the other hand, was moderately related to restriction and not related with pressure. Correlations of both factors with child and parent BMI were very small. Conclusion We found good psychometric properties of a 6-item version of the overt and control behaviors in a multiethnic sample of mothers from Sweden. Future studies need to establish causal associations between overt and covert control and the obesity related outcomes.Eating Behaviors 10/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parental feeding practices are associated with children's body mass index (BMI). It has been generally assumed that parental feeding determines children's eating behaviors and weight gain, but feeding practices could equally be a parent's response to child weight.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2014; 100(5):1329-36. · 6.50 Impact Factor