Expression of interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 in glioblastoma multiforme: Implications for targeted therapies

Surgical and Molecular Neuro-Oncology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 10/2007; 67(17):7983-6. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1493
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the median survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme is approximately 1 year. Glioblastoma multiforme explants and cell lines have been reported to overexpress the interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 subunit (IL13Ralpha2) relative to nonneoplastic brain. Based on this finding, a recombinant cytotoxin composed of IL13 ligand and a truncated form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (IL13-PE38QQR) was developed for the targeted treatment of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. In a recently completed phase III clinical trial, however, IL13-PE38QQR was found to be no more effective than an existing therapy in prolonging survival. To determine possible explanations for this result, we analyzed the relative expression levels of IL13Ralpha2 in glioblastoma multiforme and nonneoplastic brain specimens using publicly available oligonucleotide microarray databases, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, and immunohistochemical staining. Increased expression of the IL13Ralpha2 gene relative to nonneoplastic brain was observed in 36 of 81 (44%) and 8 of 17 (47%) tumor specimens by microarray and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor specimens showed highly variable expression of IL13Ralpha2 protein both within and across specimens. These data indicate that prescreening of subjects may be of benefit in future trials of IL13Ralpha2 targeting therapies.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) potently blocks protein synthesis by catalyzing the inactivation of elongation factor-2 (EF-2), and PE-cytotoxins have been used as anti-tumor agents. However, their effective clinical translation in solid tumors has been confounded by off-target delivery, systemic toxicity and short chemotherapeutic half-life. To overcome these limitations we have created toxin-resistant stem cells by modifying endogenous EF-2, and engineered them to secrete PE-cytotoxins targeting IL13Rα2 and EGFR expressed by many glioblastomas (GBM). Molecular analysis correlated efficacy of PE-targeted cytotoxins with levels of cognate receptor expression, and optical imaging was applied to simultaneously track the kinetics of protein synthesis inhibition and GBM cell viability in vivo. Stem cell-based delivery of IL13-PE in a clinically-relevant GBM resection model led to increased long-term survival of mice compared to IL13-PE protein infusion. Moreover, multiple patient-derived GBM lines responded to treatment, underscoring its clinical relevance. In sum, integrating stem cell-based engineering, multimodal imaging and delivery of PE-cytotoxins in a clinically-relevant GBM model represents a novel strategy and a potential advancement in GBM therapy.
    Stem Cells 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/stem.1874 · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current standard of care for glioblastoma (GBM) is maximal surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ). As the 5-year survival with GBM remains at a dismal <10%, novel therapies are needed. Immunotherapies such as the dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, heat shock protein vaccines, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) vaccines have shown encouraging results in clinical trials, and have demonstrated synergistic effects with conventional therapeutics resulting in ongoing phase III trials. Chemoradiation has been shown to have synergistic effects when used in combination with immunotherapy. Cytotoxic ionizing radiation is known to trigger pro-inflammatory signaling cascades and immune activation secondary to cell death, which can then be exploited by immunotherapies. The future of GBM therapeutics will involve finding the place for immunotherapy in the current treatment regimen with a focus on developing strategies. Here, we review current GBM therapy and the evidence for combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors, DC and peptide vaccines with the current standard of care.
    12/2014; 6(4):1953-1985. DOI:10.3390/cancers6041953
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human Hematopoietic Signal peptide-containing Secreted 1 (hHSS1) is a truly novel protein, defining a new class of secreted factors. We have previously reported that ectopic overexpression of hHSS1 has a negative modulatory effect on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in glioblastoma model systems. Here we have used microarray analysis, screened glioblastoma samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and studied the effects of hHSS1 on glioma-derived cells and endothelial cells to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumorigenic effects of hHSS1. Gene expression profiling of human glioma U87 and A172 cells overexpressing hHSS1 was performed. Ingenuity(R) iReportTM and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were used to analyze the gene expression in the glioma cells. DNA content and cell cycle analysis were performed by FACS, while cell migration, cell invasion, and effects of hHSS1 on HUVEC tube formation were determined by transwell and matrigel assays. Correlation was made between hHSS1 expression and specific genes in glioblastoma samples in the TCGA database. We have clarified the signaling and metabolic pathways (i.e. role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response), networks (i.e. cell cycle) and biological processes (i.e. cell division process of chromosomes) that result from hHSS1effects upon glioblastoma growth. U87-overexpressing hHSS1 significantly decreased the number of cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase, and significantly increased cells in the S and G2/M phases (P < 0.05). U87-overexpressing hHSS1 significantly lost their ability to migrate (P < 0.001) and to invade (P < 0.01) through matrigel matrix. hHSS1-overexpression significantly decreased migration of A172 cells (P < 0.001), inhibited A172 tumor-induced migration and invasion of HUVECs (P < 0.001), and significantly inhibited U87 tumor-induced invasion of HUVECs (P < 0.001). Purified hHSS1 protein inhibited HUVEC tube formation. TCGA database revealed significant correlation between hHSS1 and BRCA2 (r = -0.224, P < 0.0005), ADAMTS1 (r = -0.132, P <0.01) and endostatin (r = 0.141, P < 0.005). hHSS1-overexpression modulates signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis. hHSS1 inhibits glioma-induced cell cycle progression, cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Our data suggest that hHSS1 is a potential therapeutic for malignant glioblastoma possessing significant antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity.
    BMC Cancer 12/2014; 14(1):920. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-920 · 3.32 Impact Factor

Similar Publications