Activation of the beta interferon promoter by unnatural Sendai virus infection requires RIG-I and is inhibited by viral C proteins.
ABSTRACT As infection with wild-type (wt) Sendai virus (SeV) normally activates beta interferon (IFN-beta) very poorly, two unnatural SeV infections were used to study virus-induced IFN-beta activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts: (i) SeV-DI-H4, which is composed mostly of small, copyback defective interfering (DI) genomes and whose infection overproduces short 5'-triphosphorylated trailer RNAs (pppRNAs) and underproduces viral V and C proteins, and (ii) SeV-GFP(+/-), a coinfection that produces wt amounts of viral gene products but that also produces both green fluorescent protein (GFP) mRNA and its complement, which can form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with capped 5' ends. We found that (i) virus-induced signaling to IFN-beta depended predominantly on RIG-I (as opposed to mda-5) for both SeV infections, i.e., that RIG-I senses both pppRNAs and dsRNA without 5'-triphosphorylated ends, and (ii) it is the viral C protein (as opposed to V) that is primarily responsible for countering RIG-I-dependent signaling to IFN-beta. Nondefective SeV that cannot specifically express C proteins not only cannot prevent the effects of transfected poly(I-C) or (ppp)RNAs on IFN-beta activation but also synergistically enhances these effects. SeV-V(minus) infection, in contrast, behaves mostly like wt SeV and counteracts the effects of transfected poly(I-C) or (ppp)RNAs.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The interface between an infectious agent and its host represents the ultimate battleground for survival: The microbe must secure a niche for replication, whereas the host must limit the pathogen's advance. Among the host's arsenal of antimicrobial factors, the type 1 interferons (IFNs) induce potent defense mechanisms against viruses and are key in the host-virus standoff. Viruses have evolved multiple tricks to avoid the immediate antiviral effects of IFNs and, in turn, hosts have adapted use of this innate cytokine system to galvanize multiple additional layers of immune defense. The plasticity that exists in these interactions provides us with a lesson in détente.Science 06/2006; 312(5775):879-82. · 31.20 Impact Factor
Article: Sendai virus trailer RNA binds TIAR, a cellular protein involved in virus-induced apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sendai virus (SeV) leader (le) and trailer (tr) RNAs are short transcripts generated during abortive antigenome and genome synthesis, respectively. Recom binant SeV (rSeV) that express tr-like RNAs from the leader region are non-cytopathic and, moreover, prevent wild-type SeV from inducing apoptosis in mixed infections. These rSeV thus appear to have gained a function. Here we report that tr RNA binds to a cellular protein with many links to apoptosis (TIAR) via the AU-rich sequence 5' UUUUAAAUUUU. Duplication of this AU-rich sequence alone within the le RNA confers TIAR binding on this le* RNA and a non-cytopathic phenotype to these rSeV in cell culture. Transgenic overexpression of TIAR during SeV infection promotes apoptosis and reverses the anti-apoptotic effects of le* RNA expression. More over, TIAR overexpression and SeV infection act synergistically to induce apoptosis. These short viral RNAs may act by sequestering TIAR, a multivalent RNA recognition motif (RRM) family RNA-binding protein involved in SeV-induced apoptosis. In this view, tr RNA is not simply a by-product of abortive genome synthesis, but is also an antigenome transcript that modulates the cellular antiviral response.The EMBO Journal 11/2002; 21(19):5141-50. · 9.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ability of some Sendai virus stocks to strongly activate IFNbeta has long been known to be associated with defective-interfering (DI) genomes. We have compared SeV stocks containing various copyback and internal deletion DI genomes (and those containing only nondefective (ND) genomes) for their ability to activate reporter genes driven by the IFNbeta promoter. We found that this property was primarily due to the presence of copyback DI genomes and correlated with their ability to self-anneal and form dsRNA. The level of IFNbeta activation was found to be proportional to that of DI genome replication and to the ratio of DI to ND genomes during infection. Over-expression of the viral V and C proteins was as effective in blocking the copyback DI-induced activation of the IFNbeta promoter as it was in reducing poly-I/C-induced activation, providing evidence that these DI infections activate IFNbeta via dsRNA. Infection with an SeV stock that is highly contaminated with copyback DI genomes is thus a very particular way of potently activating IFNbeta, presumably by providing plentiful dsRNA under conditions of reduced expression of viral products which block the host antiviral response.Virology 08/2006; 351(1):101-11. · 3.35 Impact Factor