Assessment of the diet quality of US adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Lower Mississippi Delta, Little Rock, AR, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 10/2007; 86(3):697-706.
Source: PubMed


The Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) is a region at high risk of nutritionally related diseases. Assessing LMD diet quality is important in policy making, monitoring service outcomes, and designing sustainable research interventions.
The purpose was to assess the diet quality of LMD adults by using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) to 1) identify potential and needed interventions, 2) determine population subgroups needing special attention, and 3) compare regional intakes with national intakes.
Data were obtained from a representative cross-sectional telephone survey (n = 1699), Foods of our Delta Study 2000, by using the US Department of Agriculture's multiple-pass 24-h recall methodology and random-digital-assisted dialing with selection of one adult per household. The diet quality of LMD adults was compared with that of white and African American adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000.
Age, race, and income of LMD adults affected overall diet quality. African Americans had lower grain, vegetable, milk, and variety scores than did whites. The consumption of grains and vegetables was associated with lower odds ratios for being overweight. The LMD adults had a lower HEI score than did the adults in NHANES 1999-2000 (60.1 compared with 63.4), and more LMD adults ate a poor diet (24.8% compared with 18.3%).
Low-income and young-adult households in the LMD are in need of nutrition interventions with an emphasis on increasing grain, fruit, and vegetable intakes. Because socioeconomic factors affect diet quality, a multimodal, longitudinal approach appears needed to improve nutritional health.

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Available from: Pippa Simpson, Dec 23, 2013
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    • "Studying dietary quality in relation to adherence to dietary guidelines provides a practical way to evaluate population health status [34], thereby contributing to effective and targeted strategies of prevention [23]. Furthermore, when repeated over time, these dietary scores can track changes in eating habits and compare overall diet quality across different groups and populations, which may provide decision makers and health professionals valuable insight for planning nutrition interventions [21] [35] [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The term diet quality has recently gained considerable attention in nutritional research. Despite widespread use, it is often poorly defined and remains difficult to measure. Confusion surrounds the term, as there is no consensus on how to define quality of the diet or to pin down a framework for producing a standard indicator. The composite and cut-off selection of most diet quality indices depend on investigator choices in line with research objectives. In addition to the frequently used dietary compliance-based approach, innovative approaches have emerged to construct diet quality indices based on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles of diet. Different viewpoints and overlapping interests may yield different interpretations. Most of the unresolved issues are related directly or indirectly to the multidimensional and open-textured nature of the concept. This review aims to elucidate several debated key points to understand the reasons behind this confusion and address the complexity of how to define and quantify this concept. A standardized and well-defined framework of diet quality is of great importance for both consumers and scientists from different disciplines.
    Nutrition 06/2014; 30(6):613-618. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.10.001 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "For example, the consumption of red meat is associated with a higher risk of diabetes [26], and the intake of leafy green vegetables is associated with a lower risk [27]. Among adults from the Lower Mississippi Delta region of the U.S, whites had a higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI) as well as higher component scores for grains, vegetables, milk, and variety than African Americans [28]. Results from successive waves of NHANES (from 1971 to 2002) indicate that differences in dietary patterns between white and African Americans, such as the higher energy density of foods consumed among African Americans, have persisted over time [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The concepts of race and ethnicity are useful for understanding the distribution of disease in the population and for identifying at-risk groups for prevention and treatment efforts. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently updated the race and ethnicity classifications in order to more effectively monitor health disparities. Differences in chronic disease mortality rates are contributing to race and ethnic health disparities in life expectancy in the United States. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in African Americans and Hispanics compared to white Americans, and parallel trends are seen in diabetes risk factors, including physical inactivity, dietary patterns, and obesity. Further research is required to determine the extent to which the observed differences in diabetes prevalence are attributable to differences in lifestyle versus other characteristics across race and ethnic groups.
    BMC Medicine 04/2012; 10:42. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-10-42 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    • "An alternative approach is to examine overall diet quality in order to reflect the complexity of food intake patterns and dietary exposure [1]. The assessment of diet quality in a population is important in policy-making, monitoring service outcomes, and designing research interventions [2]. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) "to provide a single summary of diet quality based on different aspects of a healthy diet" [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) to assess diet quality and determine the relationship between the HEI-2005 and the energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,104 healthy adolescents, mean age of 15.8 ± 1.24 years. Dietary intake was measured with the 24-hour dietary recall method, and dietary quality was assessed by means of the HEI-2005. Diet quality scores ranged from 23.7 to 77.5. The mean score was found to be 51.5 ± 9.07 according to the HEI-2005. There were no differences according to gender; 42.8% had a poor diet and 57.2% had a diet that needs improvement. No subjects had a "good diet". Lower mean subgroup scores were found for whole grains, total vegetables, total fruits, dairy products, and meat and beans. Fruits and vegetables scores were significantly high in girls, whereas sodium, oil, and meat and beans scores were significantly high in boys. Total HEI-2005 scores were increasingly associated with parental education level when age and gender were adjusted. There was a negative correlation between HEI-2005 scores and age, total energy intake, and fat intake. Positive correlation was only observed in the HEI-2005 scores for protein and dietary fibre intakes. Consequently, the overall diet quality and nutritional habits of Turkish adolescents need modification and improvement. In the family, measures should be initiated by the government, including advertisements and campaigns.
    Nutrition research and practice 08/2011; 5(4):322-8. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.4.322 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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