Capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy: Modern modalities to investigate the small bowel in paediatrics

Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK.
Archives of Disease in Childhood (Impact Factor: 2.9). 03/2008; 93(2):154-9. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2007.125369
Source: PubMed


Historically the small bowel has been considered a technically difficult area to examine because of its length (3-5 metres), location and tortuosity. Capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revolutionised the investigation pathway of the small bowel in adults. They are now developing increasingly important roles as modalities of investigation in paediatrics. This review appraises the current literature to define the clinical indications and practical aspects of capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy that are of interest to the clinician.

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    • "Furthermore, although most images are of good quality, they are still not comparable to the view achieved at conventional endoscopy with air insufflation. In addition, CE can be complicated by retention of the capsule, which precludes its use in patients with suspected obstruction or strictures [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel evaluation is crucial in children with suspected inflammatory bowel disease to differentiate Crohn's disease from other enteropathies, in making therapeutic decisions and planning the follow-up. Endoscopic investigation of small bowel has historically been difficult due to the length and tortuosity of the organ itself. New technology, introduced over the past decade, allows minimally invasive and detailed endoscopic evaluation of the entire small bowel mucosa. While understudied in the paediatric population, literature is emerging supporting the use of these techniques in children. In this review we will provide an overview on the currently available technology, on its feasibility in paediatric age and on the available literature concerning the use of enteroscopy in paediatric Crohn's disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Capsule retention is a potential complication of capsule endoscopy (CE). The aims of our study were to determine the incidence of capsule retention in pediatric patients undergoing CE and to identify potential risk factors for capsule retention. We performed an institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review of pediatric patients undergoing CE studies at a single center. Data collected included patient age, sex, prior diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), CE indication, prior small bowel series results, study result, and complications. Two hundred seven CE procedures were performed in pediatric patients during the study period. Capsule retention occurred in 3 (1.4%) of the 207 studies. All 3 patients had known Crohn disease (CD). The risk of capsule retention in pediatric patients with known IBD was 5.2% (3/58). The risk of capsule retention for patients with suspected IBD and all other indications was 0%. If small bowel disease was identified on upper gastrointestinal series in patients with known CD, then the risk of capsule retention was 37.5% (3/8). Only 7 patients with known IBD had a body mass index (BMI) below the 5th percentile. Of these 7 patients, 3 (43%) had capsule retention. Red flags for potential CE retention identified in our study include known IBD (5.2% retention risk), previous small bowel follow-through demonstrating small bowel CD (37.5% retention risk), and BMI <5th percentile with known IBD (43% retention risk). Caution is advised in these pediatric patients before capsule ingestion.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 07/2009; 49(2):196-201. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181926b01 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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