Valproic acid alters GnRH-GABA interactions in cycling female rats.
ABSTRACT SUMMARY OF THE AIMS: Women with epilepsy using antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) often suffer from reproductive endocrine disorders, menstrual disorders and polycystic ovaries. Valproic acid exerts anticonvulsive effects via gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system, which also acts as a neurochemical regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and suggests possibility of valproic acid mediated interruption in gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse generator in hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of valproic acid treatment on the expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone, gamma amino butyric acid and polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) a marker of neuronal plasticity in the median preoptic area (mPOA) and median eminence-arcuate (ME-ARC) region having GnRH neuron cell bodies and axon terminals, respectively.
Three-month-old virgin Wistar strain female rats received VPA (i.p.) at a dose of 300 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks; control group received an equivalent volume of vehicle. GnRH, GABA and PSA-NCAM expressions were studied by immunohistofluorescence technique from mPOA and ME-ARC region of hypothalamus. Ovarian histology was also studied using Mayer's Haematoxylin-Eosin staining method.
GnRH and PSA-NCAM staining was much higher in mPOA and ME-ARC region from vehicle treated control proestrous rats, whereas VPA treatment significantly enhanced GABA expression, and reduced both GnRH and PSA-NCAM expression. Mayer's Haematoxylin-Eosin staining of mid-ovarian sections revealed significantly higher number of ovarian follicular cysts in VPA treated rats.
Our findings of alterations in GnRH and GABA expression and GnRH neuronal plasticity marker PSA-NCAM as well as changes in ovarian histology suggest that treatment with VPA disrupts hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis (HPG) at the level of GnRH pulse generator in hypothalamus.
SourceAvailable from: Vincenzo Belcastro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Treatment of epileptic patients with valproic acid (VPA) may be associated with substantial weight changes that may increase morbidity and impair adherence to the treatment regimen. VPA-induced weight gain seems to be associated with many metabolic disturbances; the most frequent are hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance. Patients who gain weight during VPA therapy can develop dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome that are associated with long-term vascular complications such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Moreover, an elevation in the levels of uric acid and homocysteine, together with oxidative stress, may contribute to atherosclerotic risk in patients under long-term therapy with VPA. The aim of this review is to discuss the metabolic and endocrine effects of VPA chronic treatment in patients with epilepsy.Epilepsy research 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.08.016 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although patients with moderate intellectual disability (ID) are known to have higher rates of being overweight and obese than those without ID, there are no current data regarding the relationship between ID and weight gain in epilepsy patients treated with valproic acid (VPA). The possible association between moderate ID and an overweight status at the time of initiation of VPA therapy (baseline) was investigated using a logistic regression analysis in 143 patients with epilepsy. Among the 119 nonoverweight patients at baseline, the longitudinal association between moderate ID and the weight status during VPA therapy was retrospectively examined using a Cox hazards regression analysis and the generalized estimating equations approach, while also paying careful attention to associations with other patient characteristics. The proportion of patients with moderate ID was 52.4% among the 143 study subjects. The presence of moderate ID was not associated with an overweight status at baseline (P=0.762). Among the nonoverweight patients at baseline, 16 subjects were newly diagnosed as being overweight during treatment with VPA (3.6±2.1 years). The presence of moderate ID was significantly associated with the incidence of an overweight status after starting VPA therapy (adjusted hazard ratio =6.72, P=0.007). The patient age at baseline and treatment with co-administered carbamazepine, clobazam, and zonisamide significantly influenced the degree of weight fluctuation during VPA therapy among the patients with moderate ID (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.002, and P=0.028, respectively), whereas only patient age at baseline affected this parameter among the patients without moderate ID (P=0.022). The present findings suggest that the weight status should be carefully monitored in VPA-treated patients with moderate ID, especially those receiving other co-administered antiepileptic drugs that facilitate weight gain, such as carbamazepine.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:1007. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S80898 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reproductive endocrine disturbances are a major health concern in women with epilepsy due to their long term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Second generation AEDs such as topiramate (TPM) and gabapentin are frequently used for the treatment of epilepsy as well as migraine, bipolar disorder etc. Despite the widespread clinical complications, however the definitive mechanism(s) mediating the side effects of TPM and gabapentin remain obscure. The present study was aimed to evaluate the long term effects of TPM and gabapentin on reproductive functions in young female Wistar rats. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian histology as well as estradiol, LH, leptin and insulin hormones level were studied to elucidate the long-term effect of these AEDs monotherapy on reproductive functions in non-epileptic animals. Further to explore the effects on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuroendocrine plasticity, the expression of GnRH, gama-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), glial fibrilliary acidic protein (GFAP) and polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) were studied in median eminence (ME) region of these animals by immunohistochemistry, Western blot hybridization and RT-PCR. Our results demonstrate that TPM and gabapentin treatment for 8 weeks causes reproductive dysfunction as ascertained by disturbed hormonal levels and estrous cyclicity as well as alterations in GABAergic system and GnRH neuronal-glial plasticity. Our findings suggest that treatment with TPM and gabapentin disrupt the complete hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis (HPG) through GnRH pulse generator in hypothalamus.European Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2014; 24(10). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.06.011 · 5.40 Impact Factor