Osteoblast-specific Angiopoietin 1 overexpression increases bone mass.
ABSTRACT Although osteoblasts express the angiogenic protein Angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), the role of Ang1 in bone formation remains largely unknown. Here we report that Ang1 overexpression in osteoblasts driven by the osteoblast-specific 2.3 kb alpha 1 type 1 collagen promoter results in increased bone mass in vivo. In Ang1-transgenic mice (Ang1-Tg), bone volume and bone parameters increased significantly compared with wild-type littermates, although the Ang1 receptor, Tie2 was not expressed in osteoblasts. Tie2 is primarily expressed in vascular endothelial cells, and Ang1-Tie2 signaling is reportedly crucial for angiogenesis. We found that the number of vascular endothelial cells was significantly elevated in Ang1-Tg mice compared with that of wild-type littermates, an increase accompanied by increased alkaline-phosphatase activity, a marker of osteoblast activation. The number of osteoclasts in the bone of Ang1-Tg mice did not differ from wild-type littermates. These results indicate that angiogenesis induced by Ang1 expressed in osteoblasts is coupled with osteogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Endochondral ossification is essential for new bone formation and remodeling during the distraction stage. Endochondral ossification is attributed to chondrocyte maturation, which is induced by various factors, such as the cellular environment, gene transcription, and growth factor expression. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) is more soluble, stable, and potent than endogenous Ang1, and COMP-Ang1 treatment has osteogenic and angiogenic effects in an in vivo model of bone fracture healing. Although the osteogenic effects of COMP-Ang1 have been demonstrated, the precise mechanism by which COMP-Ang1 induces chondrocyte maturation and triggers endochondral ossification is not understood. Here, we investigated the possible mechanism by which COMP-Ang1 induces chondrocyte maturation. First, using a WST assay, we found that COMP-Ang1 is nontoxic in rat chondrocytes. Then, we isolated total RNA from COMP-Ang1-treated rat chondrocytes, and analyzed the decrease in chondrogenic gene expression and the increase in osteogenic gene expression using real-time RT-PCR. Gene and protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which maintains chondrocytes in an immature stage, decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon COMP-Ang1 treatment. To clarify the relationship between HO-1 and COMP-Ang1 in chondrocyte maturation, we used cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP IX), an HO-1 inducer, and tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP-IX), an HO-1 inhibitor. Treatment with various combinations of CoPP IX, SnPP IX, and COMP-Ang1 confirmed that COMP-Ang1 accelerates chondrocyte maturation by reducing HO-1. In conclusion, our results suggest that COMP-Ang1 accelerates chondrocyte maturation by interacting with HO-1. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 2513-2521, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2013; 114(11):2513-21. DOI:10.1002/jcb.24596 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stem cell population size is highly regulated across species and tissue types, and alterations are associated with premature tissue failure or cancer. We assessed whether the tumor suppressor and mediator of cell contact inhibition Nf2/merlin plays a role in governing the hematopoietic stem cell pool by stem cell-autonomous or niche-determined processes. Hematopoietic stem cells in Nf2-deficient mice were increased in number and demonstrated a marked shift in location to the circulation. These changes were entirely dependent on changes in the microenvironment, with a marked increase in trabecular bone and marrow vascularity associated with increased VEGF, but without cell-autonomous alterations in stem cell characteristics. Nf2/merlin is critical for maintaining normal structure and function of the hematopoietic stem cell niche. It limits both bone and vascular components, and our model suggests that it thereby constrains stem cell number and position.Cell stem cell 09/2008; 3(2):221-7. DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2008.06.005 · 22.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity is central for maintaining the integrity of bone homeostasis. Here we show that mice lacking dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an essential molecule for osteoclast cell–cell fusion, exhibited impaired bone resorption and upregulation of bone formation by osteoblasts, which do not express DC-STAMP, which led to increased bone mass. On the contrary, DC-STAMP over-expressing transgenic (DC-STAMP-Tg) mice under the control of an actin promoter showed significantly accelerated cell–cell fusion of osteoclasts and bone resorption, with decreased osteoblastic activity and bone mass. Bone resorption and formation are known to be regulated in a coupled manner, whereas DC-STAMP regulates bone homeostasis in an un-coupled manner. Thus our results indicate that inhibition of a single molecule provides both decreased osteoclast activity and increased bone formation by osteoblasts, thereby increasing bone mass in an un-coupled and a tissue specific manner.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2008; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.10.076 · 2.28 Impact Factor