Infant human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis in resource-limited settings: Issues, technologies, and country experiences

University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology (Impact Factor: 4.7). 10/2007; 197(3 Suppl):S64-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.03.002
Source: PubMed


Diagnosing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants is difficult because maternal HIV antibodies cross the placenta, causing positive serologic tests in HIV-exposed infants for the first several months of life. Early definitive diagnosis of HIV requires virologic testing such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is the diagnostic standard in resource-rich settings but has been too complex and expensive for widespread use in most countries with high HIV prevalence. Early PCR testing can help HIV-infected infants access treatment, provide psychosocial benefits for families of uninfected infants, and help programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV monitor their effectiveness. HIV testing, including PCR, is increasingly available for infants in resource-limited settings, but there are many barriers and complex policy decisions that need to be addressed before universal early testing can become standard. This paper reviews challenges and progress in the field and suggests ways to facilitate early infant testing in resource-limited settings.

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    • "Second, we need to diagnose infants born to HIV-infected mothers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the placental transfer of antibodies during pregnancy, infants may test positive on serological assays yet may not be infected with HIV [145]. Currently, infant diagnosis is primarily performed by collecting dried blood spots and transporting the samples to central testing laboratories for DNA testing [146]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Effective prevention of HIV/AIDS requires early diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and regular plasma viral load monitoring of the infected individual. In addition, incidence estimation using accurate and sensitive assays is needed to facilitate HIV prevention efforts in the public health setting. Therefore, more affordable and accessible point-of-care (POC) technologies capable of providing early diagnosis, HIV viral load measurements, and CD4 counts in settings where HIV is most prevalent are needed to enable appropriate intervention strategies and ultimately stop transmission of the virus within these populations to achieve the future goal of an AIDS-free generation. This review discusses the available and emerging POC technologies for future application to these unmet public health needs.
    AIDS research and treatment 01/2014; 2014(4):497046. DOI:10.1155/2014/497046
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    • "The reason for higher rates most likely a high prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Mbeya (10.4%) compared to that of Kilimanjaro and Tanga, which ranged from 1 to 3%. The infection rate among HIV exposed infants may decrease with better resourced PMTCT programs and provision of more efficacious regimens [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: By the end of 2009 an estimated 2.5 million children worldwide were living with HIV-1, mostly as a consequence of vertical transmission, and more than 90% of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended early initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) to all HIV infected infants diagnosed within the first year of life, and since 2010, within the first two years of life, irrespective of CD4 count or WHO clinical stage. The study aims were to describe implementation of EID programs in three Tanzanian regions with differences in HIV prevalences and logistical set-up with regard to HIV DNA testing. Data were obtained by review of the prevention from mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) registers from 2009--2011 at the Reproductive and Child Health Clinics (RCH) and from the databases from the Care and Treatment Clinics (CTC) in all the three regions; Kilimanjaro, Mbeya and Tanga. Statistical tests used were Poisson regression model and rank sum test. During the period of 2009 -- 2011 a total of 4,860 exposed infants were registered from the reviewed sites, of whom 4,292 (88.3%) were screened for HIV infection. Overall proportion of tested infants in the three regions increased from 77.2% in 2009 to 97.8% in 2011. A total of 452 (10.5%) were found to be HIV infected (judged by the result of the first test). The prevalence of HIV infection among infants was higher in Mbeya when compared to Kilimanjaro region RR = 1.872 (95% CI = 1.408 -- 2.543) p < 0.001. However sample turnaround time was significantly shorter in both Mbeya (2.7 weeks) and Tanga (5.0 weeks) as compared to Kilimanjaro (7.0 weeks), p < 0,001. A substantial of loss to follow-up (LTFU) was evident at all stages of EID services in the period of 2009 to 2011. Among the infants who were receiving treatment, 61% were found to be LFTU during the review period. The study showed an increase in testing of HIV exposed infants within the three years, there is large variations of HIV prevalence among the regions. Challenges like; sample turnaround time and LTFU must be overcome before this can translate into the intended goal of early initiation of lifelong lifesaving antiretroviral therapy for the infants.
    BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):910. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-910 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Globally, only 15% of HIV-exposed infants access early infant diagnosis [11]. Studies showed that about 20% of HIV-positive infants die before six months and 35% to 40% die before 12 months [11,12]. Early infant diagnosis is a crucial step to facilitate access to ART, to improve infants' survival and to evaluate the effectiveness of PMTCT programmes [11-13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up in the PMTCT programme. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 282 HIV-positive mothers attending 15 health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and mulitivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Of 282 mothers enrolled in the cohort, 232 (82%, 95% CI 77-86%) initiated medication during pregnancy, 154 (64%) initiated combined zidovudine (ZDV) prophylaxis regimen while 78 (33%) were initiated lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART). In total, 171 (60%, 95% CI 55-66%) mothers ingested medication during labour. Of the 221 live born infants (including two sets of twins), 191 (87%, 95% CI 81-90%) ingested ZDV and single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) at birth. Of the 219 live births (twin births were counted once), 148 (68%, 95% CI 61-73%) mother-infant pairs ingested their medication at birth. Medication ingested by mother-infant pairs at birth was significantly and independently associated with place of delivery. Mother-infant pairs attended in health facilities at birth were more likely (OR 6.7 95% CI 2.90-21.65) to ingest their medication than those who were attended at home. Overall, 189 (86%, 95% CI 80-90%) infants were brought for first pentavalent vaccine and 115 (52%, 95% CI 45-58%) for early infant diagnosis at six-weeks postpartum. Among the infants brought for early diagnosis, 71 (32%, 95% CI 26-39%) had documented HIV test results and six (8.4%) were HIV positive. We found a progressive decline in medication adherence across the perinatal period. There is a big gap between mediation initiated during pregnancy and actually ingested by the mother-infant pairs at birth. Follow up for HIV-exposed infants seem not to be organized and is inconsistent. In order to maximize effectiveness of the PMTCT programme, the rate of institutional delivery should be increased, the quality of obstetric services should be improved and missed opportunities to exposed infant follow up should be minimized.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 10/2011; 14(1):50. DOI:10.1186/1758-2652-14-50 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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