Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the effect of fluvoxamine on p-chloroamphetamine-induced behavior
ABSTRACT The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) correlation of the effect of fluvoxamine on para-chloroamphetamine (PCA)-induced behavior was determined in the rat. Rats (n=66) with permanent arterial and venous cannulas received a 30-min intravenous infusion of 1.0, 3.7 or 7.3 mg kg(-1) fluvoxamine. At various time points after the start of fluvoxamine administration, a single dose of PCA (2.5 mg kg(-1)) was injected in the tail vein and resulting behavioral effects, excitation (EXC), flat body posture (FBP) and forepaw trampling (FT), were immediately scored (scores: 0, 1, 2 or 3) over a period of 5 min. In each individual animal the time course of the fluvoxamine plasma concentration was determined up to the time of PCA administration. Observed behavioral effects were related to fluvoxamine plasma concentrations. Fluvoxamine pharmacokinetics was described by a population three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The effects of fluvoxamine on PCA-induced behavior (probability of EXC, FBP and FT) were directly related to fluvoxamine plasma concentration on the basis of the proportional odds model. For EXC, EC(50) values for the cumulative probabilities P(Y<1), P(Y<2), P(Y<3) were 237+/-39, 174+/-28 and 100+/-20 ng ml(-1), respectively. Slightly higher EC(50) values were obtained for the corresponding effects on FBP and FT. This investigation demonstrates the feasibility of PK-PD modeling of categorical drug effects in animal behavioral pharmacology. This constitutes a basis for the future development of a mechanism-based PK-PD model for fluvoxamine in this paradigm.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Anton Megens, Aug 28, 2015
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- "One may consider a dose fractionation approach or altered dosing regimen help to define the pharmacokinetics needed to achieve the endpoint. Modeling behavioral pharmacology of psychotropic drugs is often complicated by the fact that non-continuous pharmacodynamic endpoints are reported on a categorical scale (Geldof et al., 2007). Proportional odds models have been successfully applied to data from analgesic trials in which severity of pain, albeit a "
ABSTRACT: Characterizing the relationship between the pharmacokinetics (PK, concentration vs. time) and pharmacodynamics (PD, effect vs. time) is an important tool in the discovery and development of new drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this publication is to serve as a guide for drug discovery scientists toward optimal design and conduct of PK/PD studies in the research phase. This review is a result of the collaborative efforts of DMPK scientists from various Metabolism and Pharmacokinetic (MAP) departments of the global organization Novartis Institute of Biomedical Research (NIBR). We recommend that PK/PD strategies be implemented in early research phases of drug discovery projects to enable successful transition to drug development. Effective PK/PD study design, analysis, and interpretation can help scientists elucidate the relationship between PK and PD, understand the mechanism of drug action, and identify PK properties for further improvement and optimal compound design. Additionally, PK/PD modeling can help increase the translation of in vitro compound potency to the in vivo setting, reduce the number of in vivo animal studies, and improve translation of findings from preclinical species into the clinical setting. This review focuses on three important elements of successful PK/PD studies, namely partnership among key scientists involved in the study execution; parameters that influence study designs; and data analysis and interpretation. Specific examples and case studies are highlighted to help demonstrate key points for consideration. The intent is to provide a broad PK/PD foundation for colleagues in the pharmaceutical industry and serve as a tool to promote appropriate discussions on early research project teams with key scientists involved in PK/PD studies.Frontiers in Pharmacology 07/2014; 5:174. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00174 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A mechanistic model is proposed to predict the time course of the concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in rat frontal cortex following acute administration of SSRIs. In the model, SSRIs increase synaptic 5-HT concentrations by reversible blockade of the SERT in a direct concentration-dependent manner, while the 5-HT response is attenuated by negative feedback via 5-HT autoreceptors. In principle, the model allows for the description of oscillatory patterns in the time course of 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in brain extracellular fluid. The model was applied in a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) investigation on the time course of the microdialysate 5-HT and 5-HIAA response in rat frontal cortex following a 30-min intravenous infusion of 3.7 and 7.3mg/kg fluvoxamine. Directly after administration of fluvoxamine, concentrations of 5-HT were increased to approximately 450-600% of baseline values while 5-HIAA concentrations were decreased. Thereafter 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations gradually returned to baseline values in 6-10h, respectively. The PK/PD analysis revealed that inhibition of 5-HT reuptake was directly related to the fluvoxamine concentration in plasma, with 50% inhibition of 5-HT reuptake occurring at a plasma concentration of 1.1ng/ml (EC50). The levels of 5-HT at which 50% of the inhibition of the 5-HT response was reached (IC50) amounted to 272% of baseline. The model was unable to capture the oscillatory patterns in the individual concentration time curves, which appeared to occur randomly. The proposed mechanistic model is the first step in modeling of complex neurotransmission processes. The model constitutes a useful basis for prediction of the time course of median 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the frontal cortex in behavioral pharmacology studies in vivo.European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2008; 33(3):217-29. DOI:10.1016/j.ejps.2007.12.001 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A pharmacokinetic (PK) model is proposed for estimation of total and free brain concentrations of fluvoxamine. Rats with arterial and venous cannulas and a microdialysis probe in the frontal cortex received intravenous infusions of 1, 3.7 or 7.3 mg.kg(-1) of fluvoxamine. With increasing dose a disproportional increase in brain concentrations was observed. The kinetics of brain distribution was estimated by simultaneous analysis of plasma, free brain ECF and total brain tissue concentrations. The PK model consists of three compartments for fluvoxamine concentrations in plasma in combination with a catenary two compartment model for distribution into the brain. In this catenary model, the mass exchange between a shallow perfusion-limited and a deep brain compartment is described by a passive diffusion term and a saturable active efflux term. The model resulted in precise estimates of the parameters describing passive influx into (k in) of 0.16 min(-1) and efflux from the shallow brain compartment (k out) of 0.019 min(-1) and the fluvoxamine concentration at which 50% of the maximum active efflux (C 50) is reached of 710 ng.ml(-1). The proposed brain distribution model constitutes a basis for precise characterization of the PK-PD correlation of fluvoxamine by taking into account the non-linearity in brain distribution.Pharmaceutical Research 05/2008; 25(4):792-804. DOI:10.1007/s11095-007-9390-5 · 3.95 Impact Factor