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Clark JC, Thomas DM, Choong PF, Dass CR.. RECK--a newly discovered inhibitor of metastasis with prognostic significance in multiple forms of cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26: 675-683

Department of Orthopaedics, St. Vincent's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
Cancer and metastasis reviews (Impact Factor: 7.23). 01/2008; 26(3-4):675-83. DOI: 10.1007/s10555-007-9093-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The RECK (reversion-inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs) protein was initially discovered by its ability to induce reversion in ras-activated fibroblasts. The key action of RECK is to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and angiogenesis-namely MMP-2, MMP-9 and MTP-1. To this effect, it plays important physiological roles in embryogenesis and vasculogenesis. Additionally, it has a significant effect on tumorigenesis by limiting angiogenesis and invasion of tumours through the ECM. RECK has been studied in the context of a number of human tumours including colorectal, breast, pancreas, gastric, hepatocellular, prostate, and non-small cell lung carcinoma. In many of these tumours, RECK is down-regulated most likely as a result of inhibition at the Sp1 promoter site. MMP-2 and MMP-9 generally show an inverse association with RECK expression, but there are exceptions to this rule. Likewise, a reduction in tumour microvascular density (MVD) and VEGF have also been correlated with increased RECK levels, although more studies are required to define this effect. The predominant finding across all human tumour studies is a significantly improved prognosis (due to decreased invasion and metastasis) in tumours with preserved RECK expression. Although further research is required, RECK is a promising prognostic marker and potential therapeutic agent in multiple cancers.

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Available from: Peter Choong, Feb 28, 2014
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    • "RECK, however, contains diagnostic potential as we could demonstrate a strong decrease in RCC as compared to adjacent normal tissue. This decrease was more pronounced than in prostate carcinoma [14,19] and fits also well to findings for colorectal cancer [15] and other tumor entities (reviewed in [20,21]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases can promote invasion and metastasis, which are very frequent in renal cell carcinoma even at the time of diagnosis. Knowing the reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) as an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases and the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) protein as inducer, we aimed to determine their expression, localization and possible antagonistic action in the pathogenesis and progression of renal cell tumors in a retrospective study. Tumor and adjacent normal tissues of 395 nephrectomized patients were immunostained for RECK and EMMPRIN on a tissue microarray. RECK strongly decreased in renal cell carcinoma compared to normal counterparts (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P < 0.001), and it discriminated tumor entities showing the highest expression in oncocytomas. EMMPRIN, however, could be significantly correlated to pT stage and Fuhrman grading (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs = 0.289 and rs = 0.382, respectively). Higher expression of EMMPRIN was associated with decreased overall survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.001), and the EMMPRIN level could independently predict survival for cases without metastasis and involvement of lymph nodes. Decreased RECK expression was confirmed by Western blotting in tissue of eight normal/tumor matches of patients after radical nephrectomy, whereas the EMMPRIN pattern appeared to be heterogeneous. We propose RECK down regulation in renal cell carcinoma to be an early event that facilitates tumor formation and progression. EMMPRIN, however, as a prognostic tumor marker, increases only when aggressiveness is proceeding and could add an additional step to invasive properties of renal cell carcinoma.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 10/2013; 11(1):258. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-11-258 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Of the three target genes (RECK, MTSS1, FOXF2), RECK overexpression was reported to decrease cell invasion by inhibiting MMPs including MMP-2 [24]. RECK expression has been reported to be down regulated in several cancers including prostate cancer [24]. In our study, we observed that miR-182 inhibitor decreased active-MMP-2 expression in prostate cancer cell lines as well as up-regulation of RECK protein. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently miR-182 has been reported to be over-expressed in prostate cancer (PC) tissues, however detailed functional analysis of miR-182-5p has not been carried out. The purpose of this study was to: 1. analyze the function of miR-182-5p in prostate cancer, 2. assess its usefulness as a tumor marker, 3. identify miR-182-5p target genes in PC, 4. investigate the potential for miR-182-5p inhibitor to be used in PC treatment. Initially we found that miR-182-5p expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines compared to normal prostate tissues and cells. Moreover high miR-182-5p expression was associated with shorter overall survival in PC patients. To study the functional significance of miR-182-5p, we knocked down miR-182-5p with miR-182-5p inhibitor. After miR-182-5p knock-down, prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion were decreased. We identified FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 as potential target genes of miR-182-5p using several algorithms which was confirmed by 3'UTR luciferase assay and Western analysis. Knock-down of miR-182-5p also significantly decreased in vivo prostate tumor growth. In conclusion this is the first report documenting that over-expression of miR-182-5p is associated with prostate cancer progression and potentially useful as a prognostic biomarker. Also knock down of miR-182-5p in order to increase expression of tumor suppressor genes FOXF2, RECK and MTSS1 may be of therapeutic benefit in prostate cancer treatment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e55502. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055502 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is anchored to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol, which can suppress tumour invasion and metastasis through involving in breakdown of the extracellular matrix 1. RECK modulates the function of MT1-MMP in directly inhibiting its proteolytic activity and modulating the endocytic pathway. "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the promoter methylation status of RECK gene and mRNA expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed RECK methylation by MSP, and RECK mRNA by real-time PCR in 74 HCC. The liver cell lines (7721, Chang and Hep-G2) were treated with 5-Aza-CdR and TSA. RECK mRNA were lower in HCC tissues (Mean (-∆Ct) = -3.29) than that in Non-Hcc tissues (Mean (-∆Ct) = -2.42). Expression of RECK was elevated in only 24 (32.43%) of the 74 HCC patients but decreased (-∆∆Ct<0) in 50 (67.57%) of the patients. RECK promoter was hypermethylated in 55.4% (41/74) of HCCs, and in only 17.6% (13/74) of Non-Hcc samples. RECK mRNA were lower in HCC patients with hypermethylation (∆MI>=0.5) (Mean (-∆∆Ct) = -1.75) than those with demethylation (∆MI<0.5) (Mean (-∆∆Ct) = 0.05), and there is a decreased tendency for RECK mRNA in HCC patients with promoter hypermethylation (p = 0.002). There was a significantly correlation found between RECK mRNA and poor survival after surgery. After treated by 5-Aza-CdR and TSA, we found that RECK mRNA induced different changes in 7721, Chang and Hep-G2 cells. And RECK demethylation also induced by epigenetic inhibitors. The results suggested that the hypermethylation may lead to promoter silencing of RECK mRNA and associated with poor survival in HCC.
    International journal of biological sciences 03/2012; 8(4):451-8. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.4038 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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