Article

Periodontal disease and risk of myocardial infarction: the role of gender and smoking

Social and Preventive Medicine, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY, 14214, USA.
European Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 02/2007; 22(10):699-705. DOI: 10.1007/s10654-007-9166-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Studies examining the association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease have shown a consistent but weak to moderate relationship. Limited data have been reported in women and the role of smoking has not been fully clarified.
A population-based case-control study examining the association between periodontal disease (PD) and acute non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was conducted in Erie and Niagara counties in Western New York State. Cases (574) were discharged alive from local hospitals with MI diagnosis. Controls (887) were county residents randomly selected from the NY State Department of Motor Vehicles rolls and Health Care Financing Administration files. Periodontal disease was assessed using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Among men (415 cases), the odds ratio (OR) of the association between mean CAL (mm) and MI, adjusting for the effects of age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, hypertension, cholesterol, diabetes, and total pack-years of cigarette smoking was 1.34 (1.15-1.57). In women (120 cases), the corresponding OR was 2.08 (1.47-2.94). The estimate of this association among non-smokers, also adjusting for age, gender, BMI, physical activity, hypertension, cholesterol, diabetes, and total pack-years of cigarette smoking, was 1.40 (1.06-1.86), while it was 1.49 (1.26-1.77) among smokers.
This study provides evidence of an association between PD and incident MI in both genders. This association appears to be independent from the possible confounding effect of smoking.

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between periodontal disease (PD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and evaluate the effect of dental prophylaxis on the incidence rate (IR) of AMI. The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 from the National Health Insurance program was used to identify 511,630 patients with PD and 208,713 without PD during 2000-2010. Subjects with PD were grouped according to treatment (dental prophylaxis, intensive treatment, and PD without treatment). The IRs of AMI during the 10-year follow-up period were compared among groups. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, residential urbanicity, and comorbidities was used to evaluate the effect of PD treatment on the incidence of AMI. The IR of AMI among subjects without PD was 0.19%/year. Among those with PD, the IR of AMI was lowest in the dental prophylaxis group (0.11%/year), followed by the intensive treatment (0.28%/year) and PD without treatment (0.31%/year; P<0.001) groups. Cox regression showed that the hazard ratio (HR) for AMI was significantly lower in the dental prophylaxis group (HR =0.90, 95% confidence interval =0.86-0.95) and higher in the intensive treatment (HR =1.09, 95% confidence interval =1.03-1.15) and PD without treatment (HR =1.23, 95% confidence interval =1.13-1.35) groups than in subjects without PD. PD is associated with a higher risk of AMI, which can be reduced by dental prophylaxis to maintain periodontal health.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:175-82. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S67854 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To address whether periodontal disease indexes are associated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in conditions of high and low systemic inflammation as reflected by levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in untreated hypertensive patients, we studied 242 hypertensive patients 51 ± 9 years old (24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure [BP] 132 ± 10/83 ± 8 mm Hg) with varying severity of periodontal disease evaluated by 3 periodontal disease indexes (PDIs) (i.e., mean clinical loss of attachment, maximum probe depth, and gingival bleeding index). Patients underwent BP measurements, echocardiography, and periodontal examination, and from fasting blood samples we assessed metabolic profile and hs-CRP. From 2 nonconsecutive overnight spot urine samples we evaluated UACR. With respect to median hs-CRP and UACR levels (1.67 mg/L and 10 mg/g, respectively), the total population was divided into patients with low-UACR/low-hs-CRP (n = 65), low-UACR/high-hs-CRP (n = 63), high-UACR/low-hs-CRP (n = 51), and high-UACR/high-hs-CRP (n = 63). PDIs differed among the 4 groups, and those with high UACR had significantly higher 24-hour systolic BP compared to those with low UACR. UACR was determined by all periodontal disease indexes, hs-CRP, and the interaction of each periodontal disease index with hs-CRP. In addition, mean clinical loss of attachment was the strongest determinant of the high-UACR/high-hs-CRP pattern among all studied periodontal disease indexes. In conclusion, in untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients, periodontal disease indexes and hs-CRP have a synergistic effect on UACR levels independently of the underlying hemodynamic load.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2011; 107(1):52-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.08.043 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent focus on the potential link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (PD and CVD) is part of the larger renewed interest on the role of infection and inflammation in the etiology of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Periodontal Disease is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth. The process usually starts with an inflammatory process of the gum (gingivitis) but it may progress with an extensive involvement of the gum, as well as the periodontal ligament and the bone surrounding the teeth resulting in substantial bone loss. Periodontal disease is a common oral pathological condition in the adult age and represents the leading cause of tooth loss. PD prevalence increases with age and there are estimates that up to 49,000,000 Americans may suffer from some form of gum disease. The gingival plaque associated with PD is colonized by a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to affect the initiation and development of PD and have been associated with the potential etiological role of PD in CVD and other chronic conditions. A potential etiological link between PD and CVD may have important public health implications as both the exposure (PD) and the outcomes (CVD) are highly prevalent in industrialized societies. In situations in which both the exposure and the outcome are highly prevalent even modest associations, like those observed in the studies reporting on the link between PD and CVD outcomes, may have relevance. There are not definite data on the effect of periodontal treatment on CVD clinical outcomes (either in primary or secondary prevention) however it should be pointed out that the limited (both in terms of numbers and study design) experimental evidence in humans suggests a possible beneficial effect of periodontal treatment of indices of functional and structural vascular health.
    Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 2(3):e2010030. DOI:10.4084/MJHID.2010.030
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between periodontal disease (PD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and evaluate the effect of dental prophylaxis on the incidence rate (IR) of AMI. The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 from the National Health Insurance program was used to identify 511,630 patients with PD and 208,713 without PD during 2000-2010. Subjects with PD were grouped according to treatment (dental prophylaxis, intensive treatment, and PD without treatment). The IRs of AMI during the 10-year follow-up period were compared among groups. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, residential urbanicity, and comorbidities was used to evaluate the effect of PD treatment on the incidence of AMI. The IR of AMI among subjects without PD was 0.19%/year. Among those with PD, the IR of AMI was lowest in the dental prophylaxis group (0.11%/year), followed by the intensive treatment (0.28%/year) and PD without treatment (0.31%/year; P<0.001) groups. Cox regression showed that the hazard ratio (HR) for AMI was significantly lower in the dental prophylaxis group (HR =0.90, 95% confidence interval =0.86-0.95) and higher in the intensive treatment (HR =1.09, 95% confidence interval =1.03-1.15) and PD without treatment (HR =1.23, 95% confidence interval =1.13-1.35) groups than in subjects without PD. PD is associated with a higher risk of AMI, which can be reduced by dental prophylaxis to maintain periodontal health.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:175-82. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S67854 · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To address whether periodontal disease indexes are associated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in conditions of high and low systemic inflammation as reflected by levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in untreated hypertensive patients, we studied 242 hypertensive patients 51 ± 9 years old (24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure [BP] 132 ± 10/83 ± 8 mm Hg) with varying severity of periodontal disease evaluated by 3 periodontal disease indexes (PDIs) (i.e., mean clinical loss of attachment, maximum probe depth, and gingival bleeding index). Patients underwent BP measurements, echocardiography, and periodontal examination, and from fasting blood samples we assessed metabolic profile and hs-CRP. From 2 nonconsecutive overnight spot urine samples we evaluated UACR. With respect to median hs-CRP and UACR levels (1.67 mg/L and 10 mg/g, respectively), the total population was divided into patients with low-UACR/low-hs-CRP (n = 65), low-UACR/high-hs-CRP (n = 63), high-UACR/low-hs-CRP (n = 51), and high-UACR/high-hs-CRP (n = 63). PDIs differed among the 4 groups, and those with high UACR had significantly higher 24-hour systolic BP compared to those with low UACR. UACR was determined by all periodontal disease indexes, hs-CRP, and the interaction of each periodontal disease index with hs-CRP. In addition, mean clinical loss of attachment was the strongest determinant of the high-UACR/high-hs-CRP pattern among all studied periodontal disease indexes. In conclusion, in untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients, periodontal disease indexes and hs-CRP have a synergistic effect on UACR levels independently of the underlying hemodynamic load.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2011; 107(1):52-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.08.043 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recent focus on the potential link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (PD and CVD) is part of the larger renewed interest on the role of infection and inflammation in the etiology of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Periodontal Disease is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth. The process usually starts with an inflammatory process of the gum (gingivitis) but it may progress with an extensive involvement of the gum, as well as the periodontal ligament and the bone surrounding the teeth resulting in substantial bone loss. Periodontal disease is a common oral pathological condition in the adult age and represents the leading cause of tooth loss. PD prevalence increases with age and there are estimates that up to 49,000,000 Americans may suffer from some form of gum disease. The gingival plaque associated with PD is colonized by a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to affect the initiation and development of PD and have been associated with the potential etiological role of PD in CVD and other chronic conditions. A potential etiological link between PD and CVD may have important public health implications as both the exposure (PD) and the outcomes (CVD) are highly prevalent in industrialized societies. In situations in which both the exposure and the outcome are highly prevalent even modest associations, like those observed in the studies reporting on the link between PD and CVD outcomes, may have relevance. There are not definite data on the effect of periodontal treatment on CVD clinical outcomes (either in primary or secondary prevention) however it should be pointed out that the limited (both in terms of numbers and study design) experimental evidence in humans suggests a possible beneficial effect of periodontal treatment of indices of functional and structural vascular health.
    Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 2(3):e2010030. DOI:10.4084/MJHID.2010.030
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between periodontal disease (PD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and evaluate the effect of dental prophylaxis on the incidence rate (IR) of AMI. The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 from the National Health Insurance program was used to identify 511,630 patients with PD and 208,713 without PD during 2000-2010. Subjects with PD were grouped according to treatment (dental prophylaxis, intensive treatment, and PD without treatment). The IRs of AMI during the 10-year follow-up period were compared among groups. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, residential urbanicity, and comorbidities was used to evaluate the effect of PD treatment on the incidence of AMI. The IR of AMI among subjects without PD was 0.19%/year. Among those with PD, the IR of AMI was lowest in the dental prophylaxis group (0.11%/year), followed by the intensive treatment (0.28%/year) and PD without treatment (0.31%/year; P<0.001) groups. Cox regression showed that the hazard ratio (HR) for AMI was significantly lower in the dental prophylaxis group (HR =0.90, 95% confidence interval =0.86-0.95) and higher in the intensive treatment (HR =1.09, 95% confidence interval =1.03-1.15) and PD without treatment (HR =1.23, 95% confidence interval =1.13-1.35) groups than in subjects without PD. PD is associated with a higher risk of AMI, which can be reduced by dental prophylaxis to maintain periodontal health.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:175-82. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S67854 · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To address whether periodontal disease indexes are associated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in conditions of high and low systemic inflammation as reflected by levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in untreated hypertensive patients, we studied 242 hypertensive patients 51 ± 9 years old (24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure [BP] 132 ± 10/83 ± 8 mm Hg) with varying severity of periodontal disease evaluated by 3 periodontal disease indexes (PDIs) (i.e., mean clinical loss of attachment, maximum probe depth, and gingival bleeding index). Patients underwent BP measurements, echocardiography, and periodontal examination, and from fasting blood samples we assessed metabolic profile and hs-CRP. From 2 nonconsecutive overnight spot urine samples we evaluated UACR. With respect to median hs-CRP and UACR levels (1.67 mg/L and 10 mg/g, respectively), the total population was divided into patients with low-UACR/low-hs-CRP (n = 65), low-UACR/high-hs-CRP (n = 63), high-UACR/low-hs-CRP (n = 51), and high-UACR/high-hs-CRP (n = 63). PDIs differed among the 4 groups, and those with high UACR had significantly higher 24-hour systolic BP compared to those with low UACR. UACR was determined by all periodontal disease indexes, hs-CRP, and the interaction of each periodontal disease index with hs-CRP. In addition, mean clinical loss of attachment was the strongest determinant of the high-UACR/high-hs-CRP pattern among all studied periodontal disease indexes. In conclusion, in untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients, periodontal disease indexes and hs-CRP have a synergistic effect on UACR levels independently of the underlying hemodynamic load.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2011; 107(1):52-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.08.043 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recent focus on the potential link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (PD and CVD) is part of the larger renewed interest on the role of infection and inflammation in the etiology of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Periodontal Disease is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth. The process usually starts with an inflammatory process of the gum (gingivitis) but it may progress with an extensive involvement of the gum, as well as the periodontal ligament and the bone surrounding the teeth resulting in substantial bone loss. Periodontal disease is a common oral pathological condition in the adult age and represents the leading cause of tooth loss. PD prevalence increases with age and there are estimates that up to 49,000,000 Americans may suffer from some form of gum disease. The gingival plaque associated with PD is colonized by a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to affect the initiation and development of PD and have been associated with the potential etiological role of PD in CVD and other chronic conditions. A potential etiological link between PD and CVD may have important public health implications as both the exposure (PD) and the outcomes (CVD) are highly prevalent in industrialized societies. In situations in which both the exposure and the outcome are highly prevalent even modest associations, like those observed in the studies reporting on the link between PD and CVD outcomes, may have relevance. There are not definite data on the effect of periodontal treatment on CVD clinical outcomes (either in primary or secondary prevention) however it should be pointed out that the limited (both in terms of numbers and study design) experimental evidence in humans suggests a possible beneficial effect of periodontal treatment of indices of functional and structural vascular health.
    Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 2(3):e2010030. DOI:10.4084/MJHID.2010.030