Pharmacological interventions for acute bipolar mania: a systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

Medical Research Matters, Eynsham, UK.
Bipolar Disorders (Impact Factor: 4.89). 09/2007; 9(6):551-60. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00468.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials in acute bipolar mania to summarize available data on drug treatment of mania.
We included trials of medications licensed in the USA or UK for the treatment of any phase of bipolar disorder. Outcomes investigated were changes in mania scores, attrition, extrapyramidal effects and weight change. Data were combined through meta-analyses.
We included 13 studies (involving 3,089 subjects) and identified 2 studies for each of the following medications: carbamazepine, haloperidol, lithium, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, valproate semisodium and aripiprazole. All drugs showed significant benefit compared with placebo for reduction in mania scores. Compared with placebo, for all antipsychotics pooled, response to treatment (> or =50% reduction in Young Mania Rating Scale scores) was increased more than 1.7 times [relative risk (RR) = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.54, 1.96]; for all mood stabilizers pooled, response to treatment was doubled (RR 2.01, 95% CI = 1.66, 2.43). Overall withdrawals were 34% fewer (24-43%) with antipsychotics, and 26% fewer (10-39%) with mood stabilizers. However, for carbamazepine, aripiprazole and lithium an increase in risk of withdrawal could not be excluded. Small but significant increases in extrapyramidal side effects occurred with risperidone and aripiprazole.
Antipsychotics and mood stabilizers are significantly more effective than placebo for the treatment of acute mania. Their effect sizes are similar. Small differences between effect sizes may be due to differences in the patients included in the studies or to chance. Carbamazepine and lithium may be more poorly tolerated, and antipsychotics cause more extrapyramidal side effects.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Treating pregnant women with bipolar disorder is among the most challenging clinical endeavors. Patients and clinicians are faced with difficult choices at every turn, and no approach is without risk. Stopping effective pharmacotherapy during pregnancy exposes the patient and her baby to potential harms related to bipolar relapses and residual mood symptom-related dysfunction. Continuing effective pharmacotherapy during pregnancy may prevent these occurrences for many; however, some of the most effective pharmacotherapies (such as valproate) have been associated with the occurrence of congenital malformations or other adverse neonatal effects in offspring. Very little is known about the reproductive safety profile and clinical effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs when used to treat bipolar disorder during pregnancy. In this paper, we provide a clinically focused review of the available information on potential maternal and fetal risks of untreated or undertreated maternal bipolar disorder during pregnancy, the effectiveness of interventions for bipolar disorder management during pregnancy, and potential obstetric, fetal, and neonatal risks associated with core foundational pharmacotherapies for bipolar disorder.
    Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 01/2015; 7:7-29. DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S50556
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have emerged as new treatment options for bipolar disorders (BDs). Aripiprazole (ARI) is already an SGA approved therapy for the treatment of BD type-I, both as a monotherapy as well as an add-on therapy in acute mania and in long-term maintenance therapy. Areas covered: The authors provide a systematic review that illustrates ARI's pharmacological profile including its efficacy on various aspects of BD in adults. It also reviews its role in bipolar treatment algorithms and provides a focus on future research developments and further potential uses of the compound. Additional aspects such as safety and tolerability are also considered. Expert opinion: Compared with haloperidol, ARI shows fewer extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), but has a slightly lower efficacy in mania. It has a better metabolic parameter profile and fewer cardiovascular adverse events than other SGAs although the add-on treatment shows a higher risk of EPS. Presently, data doesn't support its use as a first choice maintenance monotherapy but it may be useful as a combination therapy for BD patients with comorbidities such as drug abuse and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Studies on ARI in bipolar depression are disappointing. However, future studies on the drug, at a low dose combined with a stabilizer or antidepressant may prove interesting.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 10/2014; 23(12):1-18. DOI:10.1517/13543784.2014.971152 · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Identifier NCT00931723.
    12/2014; 2:14. DOI:10.1186/s40345-014-0014-9

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014

Similar Publications