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The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No. 22.

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Archives of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 4.49). 09/2007; 125(9):1225-32. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.125.9.1225
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the relationship of dietary carotenoids, vitamin A, alpha-tocopherol, and vitamin C with prevalent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).
Demographic, lifestyle, and medical characteristics were ascertained on 4519 AREDS participants aged 60 to 80 years at enrollment. Stereoscopic color fundus photographs were used to categorize participants into 4 AMD severity groups and a control group (participants with < 15 small drusen). Nutrient intake was estimated from a self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at enrollment. Intake values were energy adjusted and classified by quintiles. The relationship between diet and AMD status was assessed using logistic regression analyses.
Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin intake was inversely associated with neovascular AMD (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.93), geographic atrophy (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86), and large or extensive intermediate drusen (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96), comparing the highest vs lowest quintiles of intake, after adjustment for total energy intake and nonnutrient-based covariates. Other nutrients were not independently related to AMD.
Higher dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin was independently associated with decreased likelihood of having neovascular AMD, geographic atrophy, and large or extensive intermediate drusen.

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Available from: Frederick Ferris, Aug 13, 2015
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    • "Moreover, very low amounts of dietary lutein (0.002%) can efficiently decrease mammary tumor development and growth in mice (Park et al., 1998). Another study reported that lutein and zeaxanthine reduces the risk of age related macular degeneration (SanGiovanni, 2007). Triacylglycerols (5) exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans, and T. mentagrophytes (Ragasa et al., 2013). "
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    • "Moreover, very low amounts of dietary lutein (0.002%) can efficiently decrease mammary tumor development and growth in mice (Park et al., 1998). Another study reported that lutein and zeaxanthine reduces the risk of age related macular degeneration (SanGiovanni et al., 2007). β-Sitosterol (6a) was observed to have growth inhibitory effects on human breast MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma cells (Awad et al., 2007). "
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    • "Both environment and genetic factors contribute equally to the progression of AMD pathology. Several studies have defined the role of modifiable environment factors like smoking, BMI, omega-3, carotenoids, trans-unsaturated fat intake etc [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] which could modulate the combined effect of several genetic susceptibility factors functional in multiplicative or in additive manner [6-8]. The fundamental basis of modulation of these genetic factors may be explained by epigenetic changes in genes or on the regulatory sequences of these genes. "
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