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The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No. 22.

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Archives of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 4.49). 09/2007; 125(9):1225-32. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.125.9.1225
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the relationship of dietary carotenoids, vitamin A, alpha-tocopherol, and vitamin C with prevalent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).
Demographic, lifestyle, and medical characteristics were ascertained on 4519 AREDS participants aged 60 to 80 years at enrollment. Stereoscopic color fundus photographs were used to categorize participants into 4 AMD severity groups and a control group (participants with < 15 small drusen). Nutrient intake was estimated from a self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at enrollment. Intake values were energy adjusted and classified by quintiles. The relationship between diet and AMD status was assessed using logistic regression analyses.
Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin intake was inversely associated with neovascular AMD (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.93), geographic atrophy (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86), and large or extensive intermediate drusen (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96), comparing the highest vs lowest quintiles of intake, after adjustment for total energy intake and nonnutrient-based covariates. Other nutrients were not independently related to AMD.
Higher dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin was independently associated with decreased likelihood of having neovascular AMD, geographic atrophy, and large or extensive intermediate drusen.

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    • "Both environment and genetic factors contribute equally to the progression of AMD pathology. Several studies have defined the role of modifiable environment factors like smoking, BMI, omega-3, carotenoids, trans-unsaturated fat intake etc [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] which could modulate the combined effect of several genetic susceptibility factors functional in multiplicative or in additive manner [6-8]. The fundamental basis of modulation of these genetic factors may be explained by epigenetic changes in genes or on the regulatory sequences of these genes. "
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    • "Some epidemiological studies suggest that light exposure is linked to AMD (Cruickshanks et al., 1993; Taylor et al., 1992), while others do not (Clemons et al., 2005). Even the study finding no apparent link between light exposure and AMD development did report that low levels of dietary antioxidants, including lutein and vitamin C, are associated with an increased risk for AMD, which is supported by other studies (SanGiovanni et al., 2007; Tan et al., 2008; van Leeuwen et al., 2005). "
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    • "Zeaxanthin (C 40 H 56 O 2 ) is the principal pigment obtained from yellow corn or from the marigold flower; it is involved in many important physiological functions of the human body. Dietary xanthophylls such as lutein and zeaxanthin play important roles against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other agerelated eye disease (AED) [1] [2] [3]. Lutein and zeaxanthin have been found to accumulate in high concentrations within the human retina [4]. "
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