Mitoxantrone as induction treatment in aggressive relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: treatment response factors in a 5 year follow-up observational study of 100 consecutive patients.
ABSTRACT Mitoxantrone was approved by the French health authority (AFSAPPS) in October 2003 to treat patients with aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS).
To report the long term effectiveness and safety of mitoxantrone as induction therapy in patients with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS, and to assess treatment response factors.
100 consecutive patients with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS received mitoxantrone 20 mg monthly combined with methylprednisolone 1 g for 6 months. Relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and drug safety were assessed every 6 months for up to at least 5 years. Within 6 months after induction, 73 patients received maintenance therapy (mitoxantrone every 3 months (n = 21); interferon beta (n = 25); azathioprine (n = 15); methotrexate (n = 7); glatiramer acetate (n = 5)).
During the 12 months following initiation of mitoxantrone, the annual relapse rate (ARR) was reduced by 91%, 78% of patients remained relapse free, MRI activity was reduced by 89%, the mean EDSS decreased by 1.2 points (p<10(-6)) and 64% of patients improved by 1 point or more on the EDSS. In the longer term, the ARR reduction was sustained (0.29-0.42 for up to 5 years), the median time to the first relapse was 2.8 years and disability remained improved after 5 years. Younger age and lower EDSS score at the start of mitoxantrone treatment were predictive of better treatment response. Three patients presented with an asymptomatic decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction to less than 50% (one reversible). One patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (remission 5 years after diagnosis).
Mitoxantrone monthly for 6 months as induction therapy followed by maintenance treatment showed sustained clinical benefit for up to 5 years with an acceptable adverse events profile in patients with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS.
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ABSTRACT: We designed a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial involving 51 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients to determine the clinical efficacy of mitoxantrone treatment over 2 years. Patients were allocated either to the mitoxantrone group (27 patients receiving I.V. infusion of mitoxantrone every month for 1 year at the dosage of 8 mg/m2) or to the placebo group (24 patients, receiving I.V. infusion of saline every month for 1 year) using a centralized randomization system. Disability at entry and at 12-24 months was evaluated by four blinded neurologists trained in the application of the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale (EDSS). In addition, the number and clinical characteristics of the exacerbations over the 24 months were recorded by the local investigators. MRI, at 0, 12 and 24 months, was performed with a 0.2 T permanent unit. MRI data were analysed by two blinded neuroradiologists. All patients underwent a clinical evaluation. A statistically significant difference in the mean number of exacerbations was observed between the mitoxantrone group and placebo group both during the 1st and the 2nd year. Although there was no statistically significant benefit in terms of mean EDSS progression over 2 years, the proportion of patients with confirmed progression of the disease, as measured by a one point increase on the EDSS scale, was significantly reduced at the 2nd year evaluation in the mitoxantrone group. Forty-two (23 mitoxantrone, 19 placebo) patients underwent all MRI examinations during the 24-month period. We observed a trend towards a reduction in the number of new lesions on T2-weighted images in the mitoxantrone group. Our study suggests that mitoxantrone might be effective in reducing disease activity, both by decreasing the mean number of exacerbations and by slowing the clinical progression sustained by most patients after 1 year from the end of treatment.Journal of Neurology 04/1997; 244(3):153-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitoxantrone is an approved drug for patients with worsening relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive and progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). From a cohort of 820 MS patients, 52 (6%) were treated with this drug between December 1991 and April 2003. Mitoxantrone was administered at a dose of 12 mg/m(2) once a month for three months and then at three-month intervals to reach a total cumulative dose of 144 mg/m(2). The left ventricular ejection fraction was checked by radionuclide ventriculography prior to treatment and every six months. Treatment was stopped if the ejection fraction was below 50% in two consecutive ventriculographies performed one to three months apart. Cardiotoxicity during the course of the treatment was not observed. However, three patients developed congestive heart failure 24, 39 and 80 months after the last dose of mitoxantrone. Other cardiac causes were excluded. Two of these patients had been treated previously with cyclophosphamide. All patients first recovered on medical treatment, but two worsened a few months later. One patient remained severely symptomatic in spite of optimal medical treatment. Although mitoxantrone is generally well tolerated and reduces progression of disability and clinical exacerbations, our observation of a delayed cardiotoxicity makes necessary a long-term follow-up of MS patients treated with this drug.Journal of Neurology 11/2005; 252(10):1217-22. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment options for patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis are few. Encouraging results in open-label studies prompted this randomised trial of mitoxantrone in such patients. 194 patients with worsening relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis were assigned placebo or mitoxantrone (5 mg/m(2) [exploratory group] or 12 mg/m(2) intravenously) every 3 months for 24 months. Clinical assessments were made every 3 months for 24 months. The primary endpoint was a multivariate analysis of five clinical measures. Analyses of mitoxantrone 12 mg/m(2) versus placebo were based on patients who received at least one dose and returned for at least one assessment of efficacy. Of 194 patients enrolled, 188 were able to be assessed at 24 months. There were no drug-related serious adverse events or evidence of clinically significant cardiac dysfunction. At 24 months, the mitoxantrone group experienced benefits compared with the placebo group for the primary outcome (difference 0.30 [95% CI 0.17-0.44]; p<0.0001) and the preplanned univariate analyses of those measures: change in expanded disability status scale (0.24 [0.04-0.44]; p=0.0194), change in ambulation index (0.21 [0.02-0.40]; p=0.0306), adjusted total number of treated relapses (0.38 [0.18-0.59]; p=0.0002), time to first treated relapse (0.44 [0.20-0.69]; p=0.0004), and change in standardised neurological status (0.23 [0.03-0.43]; p=0.0268). Mitoxantrone 12 mg/m(2) was generally well tolerated and reduced progression of disability and clinical exacerbations. Further studies are needed to identify the patients with these forms of multiple sclerosis who are most likely to respond to therapy, the best treatment protocols, and the frequency of long-term drug-related side-effects.The Lancet 01/2002; 360(9350):2018-25. · 39.06 Impact Factor