Phase I clinical study of a personalized peptide vaccination for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) 1b who failed to respond to interferon-based therapy.
ABSTRACT To assess the safety and immune responses to a personalized peptide vaccination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) 1b-derived peptides, 12 HCV1b-positive patients, who were unresponsive to interferon-based therapy, were enrolled in this study. The reactivity of the pre-vaccination peripheral blood T cells and plasma IgG to four vaccine candidate peptides capable of inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in HLA-A24(+) patients was examined and only the reactive peptides were then administered bi-weekly at three different dose settings. The study was well tolerated with no severe toxicity. Augmentation of peptide-specific CTL activity and IgG in response to at least one of the vaccinated peptides was observed after the 7th vaccination. Decrease of serum alanine aminotransferase and HCV-RNA levels after the 14th vaccination was also observed in five and three patients, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: The field of cancer vaccines is currently in an active state of clinical investigations. Human papilloma virus vaccine has been approved as a prophylactic cancer vaccine, while Oncophage (heat shock protein-peptide complex) was recently approved in Russia for a certain stage of kidney cancer, although to date none has been approved in Japan or the USA. We reviewed recent clinical trials of several different types of cancer vaccines, mainly by using PubMed from 2005 to 2008. There have been slow but substantial advances in peptide vaccines and dendritic cell-based vaccines with regard to both clinical responses and immunological markers. A personalized approach to boost immune responses, addition of chemotherapy to overcome robust cancers and changing of endpoints from tumor reduction to overall survival seem to be the three key elements for the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines.Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2008; 39(2):73-80. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Franciscan missionary Giovanni Di Plano Carpini traveled in 1245 to a country named Yeke Tartar, to visit a certain man called Genghis Khan. His journey's report narrated peculiar dietary habits of the locals: "they eat anything, even lice". Little that Carpini knew, he had actually documented the earliest known to us record of oral vaccination against blood-borne infections - an approach that is still used occasionally in the present-day Mongolia for therapy of hepatitis. Currently, efforts aimed at developing therapeutic hepatitis vaccines have switched to more palatable path, but we may still benefit from the insight of medieval Mongols. This review provides an update on development of hepatitis B and C vaccines as related to immunotherapy of hepatitis. Immune therapy is a fast-moving field but the results so far failed to pitch woo. Current trends in research on therapeutic vaccine candidates and liver immunology are discussed. We subscribe to the idea that viral hepatitis is essentially an autoimmune disease generating immune-mediated liver damage. Therapeutic vaccines need to be designed in such a way that self-destructive immunity of the host is targeted not the virus, which is not cytopathic.Current pharmaceutical design 02/2009; 15(11):1159-71. · 4.41 Impact Factor