Clarithromycin resistance, tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism and mucosal inflammation affect H. pylori eradication success.
ABSTRACT Several bacterial and host-related factors concur in causing Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We ascertained the role of bacterial virulence genes (cagA, vacA), clarithromycin resistance [Cla(R), 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mutations], host polymorphism of CYP2C19 (polyphosphoinositide, PPI, metabolism) and of the cytokines IL-1B-31C>T, IL-1RN VNTR, IFN-gamma+874A>T, TNF-alpha-1031T>C, TNF-alpha-857C>T, TNF-alpha-376G>A, TNF-alpha-308G>A, TNF-alpha-238G>A, IL-10-1082A>G, IL-10-819C>T, IL-10-592C>A, IL-12A+6686G>A, IL-12B+15485A>C. Two groups of H. pylori-infected and H. pylori-treated patients were retrospectively identified: 45 not eradicated and 57 eradicated. Treatment failure was significantly correlated with Cla(R) (all resistant strains in non-eradicated patients); with TNF-alpha-238, IL10-819, IL10-592, IL-12B+15485 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); with IL10 ATA/ATA haplotype; and with antral inflammatory grade. On considering Cla(S)-infected patients only, logistic regression analysis (eradication = dependent; TNF-alpha-238, IL12B + 15485 genotypes, IL10 ATA/ATA as present or absent, antral gastritis grade = covariates) confirmed as significantly correlated with eradication antral gastritis grade only (Exp(B) = 6.48; 95% CI, 1.2-35.01). In conclusion, the bacterial determinant causing triple therapy failure is clarithromycin resistant, being virulence genes not involved. The host related factors that favor eradication are those linked to inflammation: a higher inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa, possibly favored by genotypes able to down regulate the anti-inflammatory cytokine response, enhance the chance of eradication success.