The co-occurrence between internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A general population twin study.
ABSTRACT Although Internalized and Externalized problem behaviors are described as separate phenomena at the psychometric and clinical levels, they frequently co-occur. Only few studies, however, have investigated the causes of such covariation. In a sample of 398 twin pairs aged 8-17 drawn from the general population-based Italian Twin Registry, we applied bivariate genetic analyses to parent-rated CBCL/6-18 Internalization and Externalization scores. Covariation of Internalizing and Externalizing problem behaviors was best explained by genetic and common environmental factors, while the influence of unique environmental factors upon covariance appeared negligible. Odds ratio values showed that a borderline/clinical level of Externalization is a robust predictor of co-existing Internalizing problems in the same child, or within a sibship. Our findings help to approximate individual risks (e.g., in clinical practice, predicting the presence of Internalization in an externalizing child, and vice-versa), and to recognize that several shared environmental and genetic factors can simultaneously affect a child's proneness to suffer from both types of problem behaviors.
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Article: Classical twin studies and beyond.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Twin studies have been a valuable source of information about the genetic basis of complex traits. To maximize the potential of twin studies, large, worldwide registers of data on twins and their relatives have been established. Here, we provide an overview of the current resources for twin research. These can be used to obtain insights into the genetic epidemiology of complex traits and diseases, to study the interaction of genotype with sex, age and lifestyle factors, and to study the causes of co-morbidity between traits and diseases. Because of their design, these registers offer unique opportunities for selected sampling for quantitative trait loci linkage and association studies.Nature Reviews Genetics 12/2002; 3(11):872-82. · 41.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anxiety and conduct problems covary, yet studies have not explored the genetic and environmental origins of this association. We analyzed parent-reported anxiety and conduct problems in 6,783 pairs of twins at 2-, 3-, and 4-years of age. As anxiety and conduct problems were fairly stable across the three ages (average 1-year correlation was .53), ratings from all three were combined. The aggregate anxiety and conduct ratings correlated .33 for boys and .30 for girls. Bivariate genetic analyses indicated fairly low genetic correlations (.31 for boys, .16 for girls), and high shared environmental correlations (1.0 for boys and 0.99 for girls) between anxiety and conduct problems. Most of the phenotypic correlation was accounted for by shared environmental mediation (65% for boys and 94% for girls), indicating that many of the same family environmental factors are responsible for the development of both anxiety and conduct problems.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 05/2004; 32(2):111-22. · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The biases resulting from missing information were examined in three psychiatric epidemiological studies. In each study, cases with missing information could be compared with the main sample because data were available from several sources or at several points in time through a longitudinal study. In almost all instances, cases with missing data differed systematically in terms of variables crucial to the questions being studied. In general, they tended to include a higher proportion with problems of various kinds--such as, behavioural deviance, reading backwardness, child or adult psychiatric disorder, and marital discord. The characteristics or circumstances of those giving information were generally more strongly associated with co-operation in testing or interviewing than the characteristics of those about whom information was sought. In some situations, the nature and degree of distortion resulting from missing information could lead to biased results.British journal of preventive & social medicine 07/1977; 31(2):131-6.