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Key-space analysis of double random phase encryption technique

College of Engineering, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences, School of Electrical, Electronic, and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Ireland.
Applied Optics (Impact Factor: 1.78). 10/2007; 46(26):6641-7. DOI: 10.1364/AO.46.006641
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We perform a numerical analysis on the double random phase encryption/decryption technique. The key-space of an encryption technique is the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that technique. In the case of a strong encryption scheme, many keys must be tried in any brute-force attack on that technique. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems demonstrate only how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. However, this type of demonstration does not discuss the properties of the key-space nor refute the feasibility of an efficient brute-force attack. To clarify these issues we present a key-space analysis of the technique. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute-force attack.

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    • "Chosen-plaintext attack [19] and knownplaintext attack [20] have been introduced for testing the security of the random phase encoding [1], which is vulnerable because of the linearity of encryption process. Moreover, the key space of random phase encoding [1] has been analyzed numerically [21] [22]. Recently Alfalou and Brosseau have reported a complete discussion and comparison on optical encryption methods [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present a double image encryption scheme by using random pixel exchanging and phase encoding in gyrator domains. Two original images are regarded as the amplitude and phase of a function in the encryption algorithm. The pixels of the two images are exchanged randomly by controlling of a matrix. The same random matrix is used in the process of pixel exchanging and phase encoding for saving space in the application of transmission and storage of key. Some numerical simulation results are made for demonstrating the performance and security of the double image encryption.
    Optics & Laser Technology 04/2013; 47:152–158. DOI:10.1016/j.optlastec.2012.09.007 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, two dimensional optical encryption processing has been extended into a three dimensional spacebased encryption processing, where each pixel of the image is axially considered as one particle and phase-shifting digital holography technique is applied to the diffraction of all pixels in space (particles) [71] [72] [73] [74]. In the context of cryptography and cryptoanalysis, both chosen-plaintext [60] and known-plaintext attack [75] [76] [77] on DRPE have been examined, as have several other attacking methods [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] and the key space of DRPE technique itself [83] [84] [85] [86] has also been analysed. In this paper we review a number of optical image encryption methods proposed in the literature based on the architecture of the classic optical Double Random Phase Encoding (DRPE) system. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In this paper we review a number of optical image encryption techniques proposed in the literature inspired by the architecture of the classic optical Double Random Phase Encoding (DRPE) system. The optical DRPE method and its numerical simulation algorithm are first investigated in relation to the sampling considerations at various stages of the system according to the spreading of the input signal in both the space and spatial frequency domains. Then the several well-known optically inspired encryption techniques are examined and categorized into all optical techniques and image scrambling techniques. Each method is numerically implemented and compared with the optical DRPE scheme, in which random phase diffusers (masks) are applied after different transformations. The optical system used for each method is first illustrated and the corresponding unitary numerical algorithm implementation is then investigated in order to retain the properties of the optical counterpart. The simulation results for the sensitivities of the various encryption keys are presented and the robustness of each method is examined. This overview allows the numerical simulations of the corresponding optical encryption systems, and the extra degree of freedom (keys) provided by different techniques that enhance the optical encryption security, to be generally appreciated and briefly compared and contrasted.
    Optics & Laser Technology 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.optlastec.2013.05.023 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Based on the DRPE method, some encryption algorithms have been considered and represented [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]. Furthermore the security of DRPE has been extensively analyzed at the aspects of key-space and attacks [17] [18] [19]. As a new tool, optical gyrator transform has been introduced into the research on the image encryption methods [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Based on fractional Fourier transform, an image encryption algorithm is proposed and researched. A local random phase encoding is introduced into this algorithm. The data at the local area of complex function is converted by fractional Fourier transform. The local random phase encoding is performed many times. Moreover only one set of random phase data is used in image encryption process. Compare to double random phase encoding, the parameter defining local area can be regarded as the additional key to increase the security of the encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations are achieved to demonstrate the performance of the image encryption scheme.
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