Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: Identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss

Biopsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
International journal of obesity (2005) (Impact Factor: 5). 01/2008; 32(1):177-84. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803712
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To identify and characterize the individual variability in compensation for exercise-induced changes in energy expenditure (EE).
Twelve-week exercise intervention.
Thirty-five overweight and obese sedentary men and women (body mass index, 31.8+/-4.1 kg m(-2); age, 39.6+/-11.0 years) were prescribed exercise five times per week for 12 weeks under supervised conditions.
Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total daily energy intake (EI) and subjective appetite sensations were measured at weeks 0 and 12.
When all subjects' data were pooled, the mean reduction in body weight (3.7+/-3.6 kg) was significant (P<0.0001) and as predicted, which suggested no compensation for the increase in EE. However, further examination revealed a large individual variability in weight change (-14.7 to +1.7 kg). Subjects were identified as compensators (C) or noncompensators (NC) based on their actual weight loss (mean NC=6.3+/-3.2 kg and C=1.5+/- 2.5 kg) relative to their predicted weight loss. C and NC were characterized by their different metabolic and behavioural compensatory responses. Moderate changes in RMR occurred in C (-69.2+/-268.7 kcal day(-1)) and NC (14.2+/-242.7 kcal day(-1)). EI and average daily subjective hunger increased by 268.2+/-455.4 kcal day(-1) and 6.9+/-11.4 mm day(-1) in C, whereas EI decreased by 130+/-485 kcal day(-1) and there was no change in subjective appetite (0.4+/-9.6 mm day(-1)) in NC.
These results demonstrate that expressing the exercise-induced change in body weight as a group mean conceals the large inter-individual variability in body weight and compensatory responses. Individuals who experience a lower than predicted weight loss are compensating for the increase in EE.

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Available from: Mark Hopkins, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Therefore, these eating behaviors were able to discriminate between individuals according to their weight loss in response to training intervention. Most studies have examined the compensatory responses used moderate-intensity training (King et al., 2008; Rosenkilde et al., 2012). For example, Church et al. (2009) compared three exercise groups based on the volume of weekly EE (4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg/week) at moderate-intensity levels in sedentary overweight women for 12 weeks. "
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    ABSTRACT: Compensatory responses may attenuate the effectiveness of exercise training in weight management. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of moderate- and high-intensity interval training on eating behaviour compensation. Using a cross-over design, 10 overweight and obese men participated in 4-week moderate- (MIIT) and high- (HIIT) intensity interval training. MIIT consisted of 5 min cycling stages at ±20% of mechanical work at 45 %VO2peak, and HIIT consisted of alternate 30 s work at 90 %VO2peak and 30 s rests, for 30-45 min. Assessments included a constant-load exercise test at 45 %VO2peak for 45 min followed by 60 min recovery. Appetite sensations were measured during the exercise test using a Visual Analogue Scale. Food preferences (Liking & Wanting) were assessed using a computer-based paradigm, and this paradigm uses 20 photographic food stimuli varying along two dimensions, fat (high or low) and taste (sweet or non-sweet). An ad libitum test meal was provided after the constant-load exercise test. Exercise-induced hunger and desire to eat decreased after HIIT, and the difference between MIIT and HIIT in desire to eat approached significance (p = 0.07). Exercise-induced liking for high-fat non-sweet food tended to increase after MIIT and decreased after HIIT (p = 0.09). Fat intake decreased by 16% after HIIT, and increased by 38% after MIIT, with the difference between MIIT and HIIT approaching significance (p = 0.07). This study provides evidence that energy intake compensation differs between MIIT and HIIT.
    International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 03/2014; 24(6). DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0032 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    • "This concept has been used to study obesity for several decades [3], and there is a wealth of data confirming that environmental factors, whether related to nutritional habits and/or physical activity/exercise patterns, play key roles in the accumulation of body fat [4] [5]. However, within a population sharing the same physical activity (PA) habits (in terms of levels and patterns), interindividual variability in body composition is widely observed [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. Methods and results: A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. Conclusions: TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals' BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.
    03/2014; 2014(3):845207. DOI:10.1155/2014/845207
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    • "It is therefore unclear whether this exercise mode will stimulate compensatory increases in appetite similar to supramaximal interval exercise (Deighton et al. 2012), or whether the appetite response will be more akin to continuous submaximal exercise, which does not seem to elicit any compensatory increases in appetite (King et al. 2010; 2011). Understanding the appetite response to popular exercise protocols is important in determining the most effective method of inducing a negative energy balance without stimulating compensatory increases in appetite, which are inversely associated with exercise-induced weight loss (King et al. 2008). Furthermore, high volume HIIE allows comparisons with SSE to be matched for duration, total work and energy expenditure. "
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    ABSTRACT: High-intensity intermittent exercise induces physiological adaptations similar to energy-matched continuous exercise, but the comparative appetite and energy balance responses are unknown. Twelve healthy males (mean ± SD: age, 22 ± 3 years; body mass index, 23.7 ± 3.0 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 52.4 ± 7.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials (control, steady-state exercise (SSE), high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE)) separated by 1 week. Trials commenced upon completion of a standardized breakfast. Exercise was performed from hour 2 to hour 3. In SSE, 60 min of cycling at 59.5% ± 1.6% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed. In HIIE, ten 4-min cycling intervals were completed at 85.8% ± 4.0% of maximum oxygen uptake, with a 2-min rest between each interval. A standardized lunch and an ad libitum afternoon meal were provided at hours 3.75 and 7, respectively. Appetite ratings and peptide YY3-36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. Appetite was acutely suppressed during exercise, but more so during HIIE (p < 0.05). Peptide YY3-36 concentrations increased significantly upon cessation of exercise in SSE (p = 0.002), but were highest in the hours after exercise in HIIE (p = 0.05). Exercise energy expenditure was not different between HIIE and SSE (p = 0.649), but perceived exertion was higher in HIIE (p < 0.0005). Ad libitum energy intake did not differ between trials (p = 0.833). Therefore, relative energy intake (energy intake minus the net energy expenditure of exercise) was lower in the SSE and HIIE trials than in the control trial (control, 4759 ± 1268 kJ; SSE, 2362 ± 1224 kJ; HIIE, 2523 ± 1402 kJ; p < 0.0005). An acute bout of energy-matched continuous exercise and HIIE were equally effective at inducing an energy deficit without stimulating compensatory increases in appetite.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 09/2013; 38(9):947-52. DOI:10.1139/apnm-2012-0484 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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