Article

Structural Requirements for the BARD1 Tumor Suppressor in Chromosomal Stability and Homology-directed DNA Repair

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 12/2007; 282(47):34325-33. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M705198200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The BRCA1 tumor suppressor exists as a heterodimeric complex with BARD1, and this complex is thought to mediate many of the functions ascribed to BRCA1, including its role in tumor suppression. The two proteins share a common structural organization that features an N-terminal RING domain and two C-terminal BRCT motifs, whereas BARD1 alone also contains three tandem ankyrin repeats. In normal cells, the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer is believed to enhance chromosome stability by promoting homology-directed repair (HDR) of double strand DNA breaks. Here we have investigated the structural requirements for BARD1 in this process by complementation of Bard1-null mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Our results demonstrate that the ankyrin and BRCT motifs of BARD1 are each essential for both chromosome stability and HDR. Tandem BRCT motifs, including those found at the C terminus of BARD1, are known to form a phosphoprotein recognition module. Nonetheless, the HDR function of BARD1 was not perturbed by synthetic mutations predicted to ablate the phospho-recognition activity of its BRCT sequences, suggesting that some functions of the BRCT domains are not dependent on their ability to bind phosphorylated ligands. Also, cancer-associated missense mutations in the BRCT domains of BARD1 (e.g. C557S, Q564H, V695L, and S761N) have been observed in patients with breast, ovarian, and endometrial tumors. However, none of these was found to affect the HDR activity of BARD1, suggesting that any increased cancer risk conferred by these mutations is not because of defects in this repair mechanism.

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Available from: Vundavalli V Murty, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "Interestingly, BARD1 is itself a tumor suppressor, mutations of which have been linked to breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers (Ghimenti et al., 2002; Sauer and Andrulis, 2005). However, curiously, some of the cancer-associated mutants of BARD1 do not alter the function of BARD1 in HDR (Laufer et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) account for about 40-45% of hereditary breast cancer cases. Moreover, a significant fraction of sporadic (non-hereditary) breast and ovarian cancers exhibit reduced or absent expression of the BRCA1 protein, suggesting an additional role for BRCA1 in sporadic cancers. BRCA1 follows the classic pattern of a highly penetrant Knudsen-type tumor suppressor gene in which one allele is inactivated through a germ-line mutation and the other is mutated or deleted within the tumor. BRCA1 is a multi-functional protein but it is not fully understood which function(s) is (are) most important for tumor suppression, nor is it clear why BRCA1-mutations confer a high risk for breast and ovarian cancers and not a broad spectrum of tumor types. Here, we will review BRCA1 functions in the DNA damage response (DDR), which are likely to contribute to tumor suppression. In the process, we will highlight some of the controversies and unresolved issues in the field. We will also describe a recently identified and under-investigated role for BRCA1 in the regulation of telomeres and the implications of this role in the DDR and cancer suppression.
    Frontiers in Genetics 06/2013; 4:85. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00085
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    ABSTRACT: The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF-50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate phosphopeptide binding pocket lacking the key arginine required for phosphopeptide interactions in other BRCT proteins. Small angle X-ray scattering together with limited proteolysis results indicates that ankyrin and BRCT domains are linked by a flexible tether and do not adopt a fixed orientation relative to one another. Protein pull-down experiments utilizing a series of purified BARD1 deletion mutants indicate that interactions between the CstF-50 WD-40 domain and BARD1 involve the ankyrin-BRCT linker but do not require ankyrin or BRCT domains. The structural plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker helps to explain the regulated assembly of different protein BARD1 complexes with distinct functions in DNA damage signaling including BARD1-dependent induction of apoptosis plus p53 stabilization and interactions. BARD1 architecture and plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker are suitable to allow the BARD1 C-terminus to act as a hub with multiple binding sites to integrate diverse DNA damage signals directly to RNA polymerase.
    Biochemistry 10/2008; 47(44). DOI:10.1021/bi801115g · 3.01 Impact Factor
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