Active surveillance; a reasonable management alternative for patients with prostate cancer: the Miami experience
ABSTRACT To examine the outcome of patients diagnosed with 'low-risk' prostate cancer managed by active surveillance (AS).
In all, 157 men with localized prostate cancer were followed on AS. The inclusion criteria for AS included: Gleason score of < or = 6, a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of < or = 15 ng/mL, stage < or = T2, low-volume disease and > 12 months of follow-up. The follow-up was rigorous, with PSA tests and a digital rectal examination every 3 months for 2 years, and a repeat biopsy 6-12 months after the initial diagnosis and yearly when indicated. Continuance of AS was based on the PSA doubling time, re-biopsy score, Gleason score, tumour volume, stage progression and patient preference.
In all 99 patients met the inclusion criteria; their mean age at diagnosis was 66 years, their mean PSA level 5.77 ng/mL and the mean follow-up 45.3 months. On initial repeat biopsy, 63% had no cancer and 34% had a Gleason sum of < or = 6. Eight patients were treated (three with hormones; five with curative intent); two had radical prostatectomy (one had pT2c pNO Gleason 7 disease); three had radiotherapy. The probability is that 85% would remain treatment-free at 5 years; no patient died from prostate cancer. The PSA doubling time and clinical stage at diagnosis were predictive of progression.
Patients who are followed on AS must be selected using narrowly defined inclusion criteria and closely followed with a standard regimen of PSA testing, digital rectal examination and repeat biopsy.
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ABSTRACT: Active surveillance (AS) is an important strategy to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment. However, the optimal criteria for eligibility and predictors of progression while on AS are debated. To review primary data on markers, genetic factors, and risk stratification for patient selection and predictors of progression during AS. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to April 2014 for original articles on biomarkers and risk stratification for AS. Patient factors associated with AS outcomes in some studies include age, race, and family history. Multiple studies provide consistent evidence that a lower percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a higher Prostate Health Index (PHI), a higher PSA density (PSAD), and greater biopsy core involvement at baseline predict a greater risk of progression. During follow-up, serial measurements of PHI and PSAD, as well as repeat biopsy results, predict later biopsy progression. While some studies have suggested a univariate relationship between urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) and transmembrane protease, serine 2-v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog gene fusion (TMPRSS2:ERG) with adverse biopsy features, these markers have not been consistently shown to independently predict AS outcomes. No conclusive data support the use of genetic tests in AS. Limitations of these studies include heterogeneous definitions of progression and limited follow-up. There is a growing body of literature on patient characteristics, biopsy features, and biomarkers with potential utility in AS. More data are needed on practical applications such as combining these tests into multivariable clinical algorithms and long-term outcomes to further improve AS in the future. Several PSA-based tests (free PSA, PHI, PSAD) and the extent of cancer on biopsy can help to stratify the risk of progression during active surveillance. Investigation of several other markers is under way. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.European Urology 10/2014; 67(4). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.10.010 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Active surveillance (AS) is commonly recommended for men with localized low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of our study was to assess the probability that patients with PCa would develop unfavorable disease features (UDF) while under AS for the purpose of evaluating whether immediate hemiablation therapy (HAT) could bring clinical benefit to selected patients.World Journal of Urology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00345-014-1433-z · 3.42 Impact Factor