Maturational effects were investigated in two age groups (N = 30 per group) of children with normal hearing sensitivity, using rotary chair (RC), computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) measures. Children recruited within the younger group were three through six years of age, and children within the older group were nine through eleven years of age. Data obtained for each pediatric group were compared with clinic and/or published adult normative data for each measure. Significant age effects were seen on many CDP subtests (sensory organization test and motor control test); VEMP latencies; and RC gain, phase, and step velocity measures. The results of this study demonstrate significant maturational effects from preschool age through adulthood and suggest that adult normative data may not be appropriate when interpreting pediatric test results. Since adult techniques should oftentimes not be utilized, a proposed test battery is described that may be efficiently utilized with pediatric patients.
"We therefore limited the vestibular test battery to only cVEMP testing because it appears to be a viable, time-efficient, noninvasive , and objective diagnostic procedure for testing children (Valente 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As deaf children are now implanted at a very early age, the influence of a cochlear implant (CI) on the early motor development of children with a hearing loss becomes relevant.
Forty-eight children with a hearing loss were included in this controlled prospective follow-up study and were subdivided into a CI group (n = 23) receiving a CI during the follow-up period and a control group (n = 25) receiving no CI during the follow-up period. All children were assessed around the ages of 6 (T1), 12 (T2), 18 (T3), and 24 (T4) months with a motor test battery consisting of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2), Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) (only at T1 and T2), and Ghent Developmental Balance Test (GDBT) (only at T3 and T4). In addition, collic vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing was performed in all children. Group differences in PDMS-2 Gross Motor Quotient (GMQ), Fine Motor Quotient, AIMS z score, and GDBT z score were analyzed using Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analysis for repeated measures.
For PDMS-2 GMQ, the LMM revealed significant effects for group (p = 0.04), test moment (p < 0.001), and for the interaction between these two factors (p = 0.035). Contrasts indicated that the CI group showed a greater deterioration in PDMS-2 GMQ between T2 and T3 compared with that showed by the control group (p = 0.002). The LMM for PDMS-2 Fine Motor Quotient and AIMS z score showed no significant effects. For GDBT z score, the LMM pointed out significant effects for group (p = 0.013) and test moment (p < 0.001), but no significant interaction between these two factors. Contrasts indicated that the CI group performed significantly weaker than the control group at both test moments (T3 and T4; all p < 0.012) and that both groups showed a significant recovery in GDBTz scores between T3 and T4 (all p < 0.012).
This study shows that the trajectory of gross motor development can be changed in children with a hearing loss after a cochlear implantation. Implanted children show a drop in their gross motor performance within the age range of 6 to 18 months, at which period the majority of the implantations took place, with a tendency of recovery toward the age of 2 years. However, longer follow-up will be necessary to trace whether the implanted children catch up their motor delay in comparison with nonimplanted children with a hearing loss at later age.
Ear and Hearing 12/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.1097/AUD.0000000000000133 · 2.84 Impact Factor
"In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of vestibular dysfunction in children with hearing impairment. Efforts to create child friendly vestibular evaluation procedures have yielded important progress   . One such test to assess vestibular abnormalities is vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertigo and imbalance are often underestimated in the pediatric population, due to limited communication abilities, atypical symptoms, and relatively quick adaptation and compensation in children. Moreover, examination and interpretation of vestibular tests are very challenging, because of difficulties with cooperation and maintenance of alertness, and because of the sometimes nauseatic reactions. Therefore, it is of great importance for each vestibular laboratory to implement a child-friendly test protocol with age-appropriate normative data. Because of the often masked appearance of vestibular problems in young children, the vestibular organ should be routinely examined in high-risk pediatric groups, such as children with a hearing impairment. Purposes of the present study were (1) to determine age-appropriate normative data for two child-friendly vestibular laboratory techniques (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP] test) in a group of children without auditory or vestibular complaints, and (2) to examine vestibular function in a group of children presenting with bilateral hearing impairment.
Forty-eight typically developing children (mean age 8 years 0 months; range: 4 years 1 month to 12 years 11 months) without any auditory or vestibular complaints as well as 39 children (mean age 7 years 8 months; range: 3 years 8 months to 12 years 10 months) with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. All children underwent three sinusoidal rotations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 Hz at 50 degrees/s) and bilateral cVEMP testing.
No significant age differences were found for the rotatory test, whereas a significant increase of N1 latency and a significant threshold decrease was noticeable for the cVEMP, resulting in age-appropriate normative data. Hearing-impaired children demonstrated significantly lower gain values at the 0.01 Hz rotation and a larger percentage of absent cVEMP responses compared with normal-hearing children. Seventy-four percent of hearing-impaired children showed some type of vestibular abnormality when examined with a combination of rotatory and cVEMP testing, in contrast to an abnormality rate of 60% with cVEMP and a rate of 49% with rotatory testing alone.
The observed pediatric age correlations underscore the necessity of age-appropriate normative data to guarantee accurate interpretation of test results. The high percentages of abnormal vestibular test results in hearing-impaired children emphasize the importance of vestibular assessment in these children because the integrity of the vestibular system is a critical factor for motor and psychological development.
Ear and hearing 12/2013; 35(2):e21-32. DOI:10.1097/AUD.0b013e3182a6ca91 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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