Investigation of platelet margination phenomena at elevated shear stress
ABSTRACT Thrombosis is a common complication following the surgical implantation of blood contacting artificial organs. Platelet transport, which is an important process of thrombosis and strongly modulated by flow dynamics, has not been investigated under the shear stress level associated with these devices, which may range from tens to several hundred Pascal.The current research investigated platelet transport within blood under supra-physiological shear stress conditions through a micro flow visualization approach. Images of platelet-sized fluorescent particles in the blood flow were recorded within microchannels (2 cm x 100 microm x 100 microm). The results successfully demonstrated the occurrence of platelet-sized particle margination under shear stresses up to 193 Pa, revealing a platelet near-wall excess up to 8.7 near the wall (within 15 microm) at the highest shear stress. The concentration of red blood cells was found to influence the stream-wise development of platelet margination which was clearly observed in the 20% Ht sample but not the 40% Ht sample. Shear stress had a less dramatic effect on the margination phenomenon than did hematocrit. The results imply that cell-cell collision is an important factor for platelet transport under supra-physiologic shear stress conditions. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to the future design and optimization of artificial organs.
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ABSTRACT: Determination of the relation between the bulk or rheological properties of a particle suspension and its microscopic structure is an old and important problem in physical science. In general, the rheology of particle suspension is quite complex, and the problem becomes even more complicated if the suspending particle is deformable. Despite these difficulties, a large number of theoretical and experimental investigations have been devoted to the analysis and prediction of the rheological behavior of particle suspensions. However, among these studies there are very few investigations that focus on the role of particle deformability. A novel method for full coupling of the fluid-solid phases with sub-grid accuracy for the solid phase is developed. In this method, the flow is computed on a fixed regular 'lattice' using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), where each solid particle, or fiber, is mapped onto a Lagrangian frame moving continuously through the domain. The motion and orientation of the particle are obtained from Newtonian dynamics equations. The deformable particle is modeled by the lattice-spring model (LSM).The fiber deformation is calculated by an efficient flexible fiber model. The no-slip boundary condition at the fluid-solid interface is based on the external boundary force (EBF) method. This method is validated by comparing with known experimental and theoretical results. The fiber simulation results show that the rheological properties of flexible fiber suspension are highly dependent on the microstructural characteristics of the suspension. It is shown that fiber stiffness (bending ratio BR) has strong impact on the suspension rheology in the range BR < 3. The relative viscosity of the fiber suspension under shear increases significantly as BR decreases. Direct numerical simulation of flexible fiber suspension allows computation of the primary normal stress difference as a function of BR. These results show that the primary normal stress difference has a minimum value at BR ∼ 1. The primary normal stress differences for slightly deformable fibers reaches a minimum and increases significantly as BR decreases below 1. The results are explained based on the Batchelor's relation for non-Brownian suspensions. The influence of fiber stiffness on the fiber orientation distribution and orbit constant is the major contributor to the variation in rheological properties. A least-squares curve-fitting relation for the relative viscosity is obtained for flexible fiber suspension. This relation can be used to predict the relative viscosity of flexible fiber suspension based on the result of rigid fiber suspension. The unique capability of the LBM-EBF method for sub-grid resolution and multiscale analysis of particle suspension is applied to the challenging problem of platelet motion in blood flow. By computing the stress distribution over the platelet, the "blood damage index" is computed and compared with experiments in channels with various geometries . In platelet simulation, the effect of 3D channel geometry on the platelet activation and aggregation is modeled by using LBM-EBF method. Comparison of our simulations with Fallon's experiments  shows a similar pattern, and shows that Dumont's BDI model  is more appropriate for blood damage investigation. It has been shown that channels with sharp transition geometry will have larger recirculation areas with high BDI values. By investigating the effect of hinge area geometry on BDI value, we intend to use this multiscale computational method to optimize the design of Bileaflet mechanical heart valves. Both fiber simulations and platelet simulations have shown that the novel LBM-EBF method is more efficient and stable compare to the conventional numerical methods. The new EBF method is a two-Cway coupling method with sub-grid accuracy which makes the platelet simulations possible. The LBM-EBF is the only method to date, to the best of author's knowledge, that can simulate suspensions with large number of deformable particles under complex flow conditions. It is hoped that future researchers may benefit from this new method and the algorithms developed here.
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ABSTRACT: Recombinant glycoprotein Ibα latex beads (rGPIbα-LB) are a potential solution to overcoming platelet transfusion problems with artificial platelets. To understand the transport process of artificial platelets and to estimate the particle motion when adhering to the wall surface, we evaluated the lateral motion of rGPIbα-LB in terms of drift and random motion, because the lateral motion is an important factor for transport and adhesion. We observed the lateral motion of rGPIbα-LB flowing with red blood cells toward the immobilized von Willebrand factor (vWf) surface in a model arteriole at wall shear rates of 200–1000 s−1 and 0–40% Hct. At 40% Hct, wall shear rate dependence was observed for the drift motion, i.e. the lateral velocity of rGPIbα-LB toward the wall. In the near-wall region, the drift motion of contacting particles differed substantially from that of non-contacting particles. Additionally, the trajectories of contacting particles on the vWf surface had specific motion that was not observed on the BSA surface. These results suggest that the adhesion force between rGPIbα and vWf is highly associated with the motion of particles near the wall. These features are desirable for artificial platelets, particularly for the adhesion process.Journal of Biorheology 03/2011; 26(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s12573-011-0042-3
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ABSTRACT: Microscopic steps and crevices are inevitable features within prosthetic blood-contacting devices. This study aimed to elucidate the thrombogenicity of the associated microscopic flow features by studying the transport of fluorescent platelet-sized particles in a suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) flowing through a 100 microm:200 microm sudden expansion. Micro-flow visualization revealed a strong influence of hematocrit upon the path of RBCs and spatial concentration of particles. At all flow rates studied (Re = 8.3-41.7) and hematocrit 20% and lower, RBC streamlines were found to detach from the microchannel wall creating an RBC-depleted zone inside the step that was much larger than the cells themselves. However, the observed distribution of particles was relatively homogeneous. By contrast, the RBC streamlines of samples with hematocrit equal to or greater than 30% more closely followed the contour of the microchannel, yet exhibited enhanced concentration of particles within the corner. The corresponding size of the cell depletion layer was comparable with the size of the cells. This study implies that local platelet concentration in blood within the physiological range of hematocrit can be elevated within the flow separation region of a sudden expansion and implicates the role of RBCs in causing this effect.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 08/2008; 36(7):1130-41. DOI:10.1007/s10439-008-9494-z · 3.23 Impact Factor