Isolation of Neospora caninum from dairy zero grazing cattle in Israel

Kimron Veterinary Institute, Beit Dajan, Central District, Israel
Veterinary Parasitology (Impact Factor: 2.46). 12/2007; 149(3-4):167-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.08.009
Source: PubMed


First Israeli Neospora caninum isolates were obtained from brain tissues of aborted fetuses (NcIs491 and NcIs580) from dairy farms endemic for neosporosis and maintaining cattle on zero grazing. Tissues from different parts of the fetus brains were used to infect Vero cells. Tachyzoites of N. caninum were first observed in cultures from days 30 and 32 after infection. To confirm the identity of the isolated parasites, DNA extracts from brains and cultures were tested by PCR with specific primers based on the Nc5 gene. Specific fragments were amplified by PCR from infected cultures of both fetuses on day 25. Susceptible seronegative gerbils (Meriones tristrami) were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(3) to 10(5) tenfold dilutions of subculture tachyzoites. The inoculated gerbils developed specific antibodies to N. caninum, with end-point serum dilution of 1:4096 in the IFA assay, whereas no neurological signs or deaths were seen during 4 months of observation.

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    • "Cattle seropositive to N. caninum have been found to be 3–11 times more likely to abort than seronegative animals (Almeria and López-Gatius, 2013). More than 45% of dams in Israeli dairy farms have been observed to carry specific N. caninum antibodies and 18% of abortions were associated with N. caninum infection, as confirmed by serological and molecular assays on aborted fetuses (Fish et al., 2007; Mazuz et al., 2011). Although N. caninum may be transmitted horizontally to cattle after ingesting infective oocysts shed by the definitive hosts, dogs and wild canids (McAllister et al., 1998), transplacental infection from persistently infected dams is known to be the main route of infection in dairy cattle (Dubey, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional Neospora caninum seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (Corvus cornix, Corvus monedula and Corvus splendens) from Israel in order to assess their exposure to this pathogen and evaluate their role as potential hosts or as sentinels of infection. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff titer of 1:100, 30 out of 183 crows (16.4%) were found to be N. caninum seropositive. Positive results were validated and confirmed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). There was 100% agreement between tests when cut-off titers of 1:50 and 1:100 were applied for the IFAT and MAT, respectively. PCR analysis of brain extracts from all crows resulted in the detection of N. caninum DNA for the first time in crows belonging to two species, C. cornix and C. monedula. The high N. caninum seroprevalence in crows suggests that widespread exposure to infection with N. caninum exists especially in central and northern Israel and that crows may act as suitable markers for disease prevalence in the areas in which they are found.
    Veterinary Parasitology 09/2015; 212(3). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.08.019 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    • "2.2. Parasites N. caninum tachyzoites of the Israeli isolate NcIS491 (Fish et al., 2007 "
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    ABSTRACT: Neosporosis, caused by the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum, is a major cause of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. The principal route of transmission of neosporosis is via in utero infection of the offspring. There is no effective prophylactic treatment or vaccine available against bovine neosporosis. A N. caninum NcIs491 isolate was examined for its ability to immunize and reduce abortions in naturally infected dairy cows under field conditions. N. caninum-seropositive pregnant dams were inoculated with 10(8) live tachyzoites during mid-term pregnancy. A total of 520 N. caninum seropositive dams were included in this study, of these, 146 were immunized and 374 cows served as a non-vaccinated control group. A significantly lower incidence of abortion was observed in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated cows, 16 and 26% respectively (P=0.01), with a vaccine efficacy of 39%. However, the number of seropositive offspring remained similar in both groups. Overall, this field trial suggests that vaccination with live N. caninum tachyzoites should be considered as an effective measure to reduce abortions caused by neosporosis in naturally infected cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 04/2015; 120(2). DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.03.020 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    • "N. caninum from the Israeli isolate NcIs491 was used as positive control. Detection of Neospora caninum DNA was performed by nPCR as previous described by Fish et al. (2007). The expected product of 280 bp was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis (1.5%), stained with ethidium bromide and visualized under UV light. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neosporosis caused by Neospora caninum has global economic, clinical, and epidemiological impacts, mainly in the cattle industry. Currently, there is no useful drug for treatment of neosporosis. This publication is the first to describe the significant benefits that artemisone has on Neospora infections both in vitro and in vivo. Artemisone is a new semi-synthetic 10-alkylamino artemisinin that is superior to other artemisinin derivatives in terms of its significantly higher antimalarial activity, its tolerance in vivo, lack of detectable neurotoxic potential, improved in vivo pharmacokinetics and metabolic stability. Low micromolar concentrations of artemisone inhibited in vitro Neospora development. Prophylactic and post-infection treatment profoundly reduced the number of infected cells and parasites per cell. In the in vivo gerbil model, a non-toxic dose prevented typical cerebral symptoms, in most animals. There were no signs of clinical symptoms and brain PCR was negative. Most treated gerbils produced high specific antibody titer and were protected against a challenge. Overall, artemisone could be considered as a future drug for neosporosis.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2011; 187(1-2):99-104. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.12.020 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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