Haemostatic imbalance following carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema

Dipartimento Farmacologia Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via D. Montesano 49, 80 131 Napoli, Italy.
European Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.68). 01/2008; 577(1-3):156-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.08.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema is a widely used model to investigate the physiopathology of an acute local inflammation. Recently, much attention has been focused on the link between haemostasis and inflammation, and on the impact that inflammation might have on thrombotic events. It is known that the systemic response to inflammation is the "acute phase reaction" that represents a highly complex reaction of the organism to a variety of injuries, aimed to restore homeostasis; one important feature of the acute phase reaction is the hepatic synthesis of proteins involved in the coagulation cascade. Much attention has been focused on the role that systemic inflammation might have on thrombotic events, while there is not much information on the role played by an acute local inflammation on haemostasis, that can lead toward a pro-thrombotic state. The present study was conducted to evaluate the haemostatic balance in the early and the late phase of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema; i.e. at 3 h, when paw inflammation is maximally expressed, and 24 h following carrageenan injection, when there is an almost complete absence of local inflammatory symptoms. We found that in inflamed animals, 24 h following oedema induction, there was an increase in plasma fibrinogen levels, antithrombin III activity and serum interleukin-6 levels, concomitant to a shortened prothrombin time and to an increased platelet responsiveness to ADP. Furthermore, in inflamed tissues at 3 h there was an increase in antithrombin III proteic expression. Our results demonstrate that a haemostatic imbalance occurs following carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema.

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    • "Blood anticoagulated with 3.2% sodium citrate (1:9 citrate/blood, v/v) was withdrawn from male Wistar rats (anesthetized by enflurane) by cardiac puncture. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were prepared as previously described (Pearce et al., 2004; Cicala et al., 2007). Briefly, PRP was obtained by centrifugation at 800 rpm for 15 min at 25 1C. "
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    • "Carrageenan is a polysaccharide formed by repeated monomers that have groups of galactose sulfate, extracted from the cell wall of Rhodophyta algae such as Chondrus crispus (Campo et al., 2009). It has being widely used as an inductor of inflammation (Morris, 2003; Cicala et al., 2007, Vieira et al., 2012a,b). Inflammatory agents have been used to induce tendinopathies in experimental models used to study the efficacy of various potential therapies. "
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    • "Note the presence of active MMP-9 (83 kDa) only in the group receiving the inflammatory agent in the same region. of an acute inflammatory process [14] [16] [31]. The inflammation caused by carrageenan is at its highest 3 hr post-application, and its effects in those first few hours have been widely discussed. "
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