A G(s)-linked receptor maintains meiotic arrest in mouse oocytes, but luteinizing hormone does not cause meiotic resumption by terminating receptor-G(s) signaling.
ABSTRACT The maintenance of meiotic prophase arrest in fully grown vertebrate oocytes depends on the activity of a G(s) G-protein that activates adenylyl cyclase and elevates cAMP, and in the mouse oocyte, G(s) is activated by a constitutively active orphan receptor, GPR3. To determine whether the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) on the mouse ovarian follicle causes meiotic resumption by inhibiting GPR3-G(s) signaling, we examined the effect of LH on the localization of Galpha(s). G(s) activation in response to stimulation of an exogenously expressed beta(2)-adrenergic receptor causes Galpha(s) to move from the oocyte plasma membrane into the cytoplasm, whereas G(s) inactivation in response to inhibition of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor causes Galpha(s) to move back to the plasma membrane. However, LH does not cause a change in Galpha(s) localization, indicating that LH does not act by terminating receptor-G(s) signaling.
Article: Beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation promotes G alpha s internalization through lipid rafts: a study in living cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Upon binding hormones or drugs, many G protein-coupled receptors are internalized, leading to receptor recycling, receptor desensitization, and down-regulation. Much less understood is whether heterotrimeric G proteins also undergo agonist-induced endocytosis. To investigate the intracellular trafficking of G alpha s, we developed a functional G alpha s-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein that can be visualized in living cells during signal transduction. C6 and MCF-7 cells expressing G alpha s-GFP were treated with 10 microM isoproterenol, and trafficking was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Upon isoproterenol stimulation, G alpha s-GFP was removed from the plasma membrane and internalized into vesicles. Vesicles containing G alpha s-GFP did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes or late endosomes/lysosomes, revealing that G alpha s does not traffic through common endocytic pathways. Furthermore, G alpha s-GFP did not colocalize with internalized beta2-adrenergic receptors, suggesting that G alpha s and receptors are removed from the plasma membrane by distinct endocytic pathways. Nonetheless, activated G alpha s-GFP did colocalize in vesicles labeled with fluorescent cholera toxin B, a lipid raft marker. Agonist significantly increased G alpha s protein in Triton X-100 -insoluble membrane fractions, suggesting that G alpha s moves into lipid rafts/caveolae after activation. Disruption of rafts/caveolae by treatment with cyclodextrin prevented agonist-induced internalization of G alpha s-GFP, as did overexpression of a dominant-negative dynamin. Taken together, these results suggest that receptor-activated G alpha s moves into lipid rafts and is internalized from these membrane microdomains. It is suggested that agonist-induced internalization of G alpha s plays a specific role in G protein-coupled receptor-mediated signaling and could enable G alpha s to traffic into the cellular interior to regulate effectors at multiple cellular sites.Molecular Pharmacology 06/2005; 67(5):1493-504. · 4.88 Impact Factor