Mechanism of poly(A) polymerase: structure of the enzyme-MgATP-RNA ternary complex and kinetic analysis.
ABSTRACT We report the 1.8 A structure of yeast poly(A) polymerase (PAP) trapped in complex with ATP and a five residue poly(A) by mutation of the catalytically required aspartic acid 154 to alanine. The enzyme has undergone significant domain movement and reveals a closed conformation with extensive interactions between the substrates and all three polymerase domains. Both substrates and 31 buried water molecules are enclosed within a central cavity that is open at both ends. Four PAP mutants were subjected to detailed kinetic analysis, and studies of the adenylyltransfer (forward), pyrophosphorolysis (reverse), and nucleotidyltransfer reaction utilizing CTP for the mutants are presented. The results support a model in which binding of both poly(A) and the correct nucleotide, MgATP, induces a conformational change, resulting in formation of a stable, closed enzyme state. Thermodynamic considerations of the data are discussed as they pertain to domain closure, substrate specificity, and catalytic strategies utilized by PAP.
Article: Sequence motifs that distinguish ATP(CTP):tRNA nucleotidyl transferases from eubacterial poly(A) polymerases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ATP(CTP):tRNA nucleotidyl transferases, tRNA maturing enzymes found in all organisms, and eubacterial poly(A) polymerases, enzymes involved in mRNA degradation, are so similar that until now their biochemical functions could not be distinguished by their amino acid sequence. BLAST searches and analysis with the program "Sequence Space" for the prediction of functional residues revealed sequence motifs which define these two protein families. One of the poly(A) polymerase defining motifs specifies a structure that we propose to function in binding the 3' terminus of the RNA substrate. Similar motifs are found in other homopolyribonucleotidyl transferases. Phylogenetic classification of nucleotidyl tranferases from sequenced genomes reveals that eubacterial poly(A) polymerases have evolved relatively recently and are found only in a small group of bacteria and surprisingly also in plants, where they may function in organelles.RNA 07/2004; 10(6):899-906. · 5.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 3'-Uridylylation of RNA is emerging as a phylogenetically widespread phenomenon involved in processing events as diverse as uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in mitochondria of trypanosomes and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) maturation in humans. This reaction is catalyzed by terminal uridylyltransferases (TUTases), which are template-independent RNA nucleotidyltransferases that specifically recognize UTP and belong to a large enzyme superfamily typified by DNA polymerase beta. Multiple TUTases, recently identified in trypanosomes, as well as a U6 snRNA-specific TUTase enzyme in humans, are highly divergent at the protein sequence level. However, they all possess conserved catalytic and UTP recognition domains, often accompanied by various auxiliary modules present at the termini or between conserved domains. Here we report identification, structural and biochemical analyses of a novel trypanosomal TUTase, TbTUT4, which represents a minimal catalytically active RNA uridylyltransferase. The TbTUT4 consists of only two domains that define the catalytic center at the bottom of the nucleoside triphosphate and RNA substrate binding cleft. The 2.0 Angstroms crystal structure reveals two significantly different conformations of this TUTase: one molecule is in a relatively open apo conformation, whereas the other displays a more compact TUTase-UTP complex. A single nucleoside triphosphate is bound in the active site by a complex network of interactions between amino acid residues, a magnesium ion and highly ordered water molecules with the UTP's base, ribose and phosphate moieties. The structure-guided mutagenesis and cross-linking studies define the amino acids essential for catalysis, uracil base recognition, ribose binding and phosphate coordination by uridylyltransferases. In addition, the cluster of positively charged residues involved in RNA binding is identified. We also report a 2.4 Angstroms crystal structure of TbTUT4 with the bound 2' deoxyribonucleoside, which provides the structural basis of the enzyme's preference toward ribonucleotides.Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2007; 366(3):882-99. · 4.00 Impact Factor