The Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised: Development of a 13-item scale

Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Disability and Rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 1.99). 02/2008; 30(2):114-21. DOI: 10.1080/09638280701223876
Source: PubMed


The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ) was developed as a subjective measure of memory failure in everyday life. Previous studies have investigated the factor structure of the EMQ in both healthy participants and people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to confirm the factor structure of the EMQ, to determine the internal consistency and criterion validity of the scale and to develop a shortened version.
A retrospective design, including participants from a study on MS patients and their carers and a study on stroke patients. Psychometric properties of the EMQ-28 were explored, and the measure was further revised from comparative analyses between the clinical and non-clinical groups.
Reliability and factor analysis of the EMQ-28 identified two main factors, general memory and attentional function, showing some concordance with previous research. Further analysis reduced the questionnaire to a 13-item measure (EMQ-R), with two main factors (Retrieval and Attentional tracking), strong internal reliability, and good discriminatory properties between clinical and control groups.
The 28-item questionnaire consistently differentiated between two broad systems of memory and attention, with some differentiation of visual and verbal, or language systems. Results showed some consistency with previous findings. The revised, 13-item questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that has good face validity for use with neurological patients. Further exploration of the revised EMQ is recommended to provide information regarding its psychometric and clinical properties.

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    • "En ellos está implicada la memoria de trabajo en su aspecto de planificación y monitorización de tareas (―dificultades en seguir una historia por televisión‖, ―no seguir una trama al leer‖, ―mezclar cosas que le han dicho‖). Podríamos decir que es el factor más ―cultural‖ pues los olvidos tienen que ver con lectura, lenguaje, comprensión de la información recibida, etc. Para otros autores estos ítems están encuadrados en componentes como ―monitorización de tareas‖ y ―monitorización de conversaciones‖ (Cornish, 2000), ―comunicación receptiva y expresiva‖ (Richardson, 1996), ―memoria prospectiva‖ , ―memoria general‖, ―aprendizaje nuevo‖ y ―repetición de respuestas‖ (Efklides et al., 2002) y ―atención‖ (Royle y Lincoln, 2008). En estos olvidos se involucran áreas como la memoria a corto plazo y la memoria de trabajo, así como componentes atencionales, de lenguaje y otros. "
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    ABSTRACT: Uno de los instrumentos más utilizados para valorar los olvidos cotidianos es el Cuestionario de Fallos de Memoria de la Vida Cotidiana (MFE). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura factorial de una adaptación española del MFE y la relación de los factores tanto con el rendimiento en memoria objetiva como con variables de tipo afectivo en una muestra de 647 sujetos adultos (19-64 años). Para la evaluación se emplearon: MFE, Lista de Palabras y Escenas de Familia de la Escala de Memoria de Wechsler, Escala de Depresión y Ansiedad de Goldberg y dos preguntas sobre quejas de memoria. El estudio estadístico se realizó con los programas Mplus y SPSS. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de una estructura de tres factores, que explicaban el 29.3 % de la varianza: 1. Memoria relacionada con Actividades, 2. Reconocimiento y 3. Comunicación y Memoria de trabajo. Los dos factores con olvidos más frecuentes son Actividades y Comunicación, están más relacionados entre sí que con el de Reconocimiento y se relacionan más con aspectos afectivos y con las preguntas de quejas. La edad y el rendimiento objetivo de memoria se correlacionan más con el factor Reconocimiento.
    Anales de Psicología 01/2014; 30(1):320-328. DOI:10.6018/analesps.30.1.131401 · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    • "Self-and significant other's report of cognitive and functional impairments Pamela's self-report on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire—Revised (Royle & Lincoln, 2008) indicated that she experiences difficulties in attending to and retrieving information on a daily basis (e.g., forgetting you were told something, losing track of a story-line), and her overall impairment score (3.70) was higher than the mean for individuals poststroke (M = 1.51: Royle & Lincoln). "
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    ABSTRACT: Many individuals with stroke experience difficulty resuming their pre-injury lifestyle, that which may lead to feelings of discouragement, shame, and self-criticism. Self-criticism has been associated with heightened risk of depression and anxiety. Therefore, managing self-criticism may be a key component in psychotherapeutic interventions; however, this is yet to be evaluated in the context of stroke. A case study is presented of “Pamela”, a forty-eight-year-old woman who experienced an aneurysm located in the right posterior communicating artery eighteen months prior to therapy. She was initially referred for an assessment of memory functioning and cognitive rehabilitation. However, it became apparent that her subjective cognitive concerns were not consistent with the likely site of neurological damage, and that her high levels of anxiety were exacerbating her functional impairments in daily life. This had resulted in the use of avoidance as a safety strategy, and an overall reduction in her activity and social participation. Following a comprehensive assessment of cognitive functioning and feedback (five sessions), therapy adopted an integrated cognitive behavioural/ compassion-focused approach aimed at enhancing self-acceptance and compassion, and reducing avoidance and psychological distress. After ten sessions of psychotherapy, Pamela reported a clinically significant reduction in emotional distress, fewer avoidance behaviours, and an increase in self-compassion. At the three-month follow-up Pamela’s improvement in emotional status was maintained, despite an increase in avoidance behaviours to almost pre-treatment levels.
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    • "It presents 9 response options ranging from " Never in the last 3 months " to " More than once a day. " Other authors (Royle & Lincoln, 2008) have used the NORMATIVE DATA FROM THE MFE 28-item version with 5 response alternatives and studied its factor structure and internal consistency, later developing a 13-item version. The 28-item version has also been employed with 7 response options (Tinson & Lincoln, 1987) and in a different study, with 4 (Efklides et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: One approach to the study of everyday memory failures is to use multiple-item questionnaires. The Memory Failures of Everyday (MFE) test is one of the most frequently used in Spain. Our objective is to provide normative data from the MFE in a sample of healthy, Spanish, adult participants for use in clinical practice. The sample consists of 647 employees at a large company ranging in age from 19-64 years-old. Everyday memory failures were evaluated by means of the MFE with the following response format: 0-2 (0 = never or rarely; 1 = occasionally, sometimes; 2 = frequently, often). Results: Mean MFE = 15.25 (SD = 7.50), range 0-40. Correlation with age: .133 (p = .001); and with years of education: - .059 (n.s.). A constant increase in MFE was not observed across age groups (F = 4, 59; p = .003, eta2 = .02), but differences were revealed between the 19-29 and 40-49 age groups; no differences were observed between the remaining age groups. Only slight differences between men and women occurred, the women's mean being slightly higher than the men's, but the confidence intervals overlapped (F = 5, 71; p = .017, eta2 = .01). These results indicate that age, years of education, and sex had no significant effects. In light of the above, the sample was viewed as a whole when computing the percentiles reported here.
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