Metallothionein responses in the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) after exposure to trivalent arsenic.
ABSTRACT The main objective of this work was to evaluate arsenic effects on metallothionein (MT) induction by exposing a freshwater Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) to different concentrations of this metalloid. The presence of MT-like proteins was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and compared with a standard rabbit MT. In addition, the polarographic response showed good correspondence between standard MT and MT-like curves from C. fluminea, allowing MT quantification. The results show that clams exposed to different concentrations of arsenic are able to induce significant levels of MTs. Although variability was found in MT induction, significant differences in MT levels were found after 28 days of exposure in all treatments in comparison with the controls, suggesting that exposure to arsenic induced MT-like proteins in C. fluminea.
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ABSTRACT: The general objective of our work was to propose new reference material for chemical toxicity testing and new sentinel organisms for environmental quality survey programs (freshwater or soils). We also wanted to provide basic toxicological data on the environmental effects of uranium. Thus, we conducted a comparative study to establish the acute toxicity and toxicokinetics of lead (Pb) and uranium (U) to the bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea and the terrestrial annelid Eisenia fetida andrei and to compare these findings with those of the well-known teleost fish Brachydanio rerio. We then measured the concentration of these metals in various tissues of the clam and the worm after two periods of exposure (4 and 11 days) to identify the affinities of these tissues for Pb and U. Our results have shown that Pb and U are very toxic to Eisenia and relatively nontoxic to Corbicula. By comparison, Pb was relatively nontoxic and U appeared to be very toxic to the fish. The toxicokinetic studies indicated that the three species are able to accumulate Pb and U, the rate and level of accumulation depending both on the species and the metal. We also found that fish and clams depurate the two metals. Data collected for the worm were conflicting: Pb was not depurated whereas tissue concentrations of U declined after the eighth day of exposure. Our study has also shown that the tissue distribution of Pb in the mollusc and in the earthworm differs significantly from that of U, both after 4 and 11 days exposure. In conclusion, these three species showed potential as bioindicators of environmental contamination by metals. Indeed, they could be used in conjunction to test different compartments of an ecosystem: worms for soils, fish for the water column, and clams for the water/sediment interface.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 03/1999; 36(2):167-78. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The number of reported cases of chronic arsenic poisoning is on the rise throughout the world, making the study of the long-term effects of arsenic critical. As(3+) binds readily to biological thiols, including mammalian metallothionein (MT), which is an ubiquitous sulfur-rich metalloprotein known to coordinate a wide range of metals. The two-domain mammalian protein binds divalent metals (M) into two metal-thiolate clusters with stoichiometries of M(3)S(cys9) (beta) and M(4)S(cys11) (alpha). We report that As(3+) binds with stoichiometries of As(3)S(cys9) (beta) and As(3)S(cys11) (alpha) to the recombinant human metallothionein (rhMT) isoform 1a protein. Further, we report the complete kinetic analysis of the saturation reactions of the separate alpha and beta domains of rhMT with As(3+). Speciation in the metalation reactions was determined using time- and temperature-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The binding reaction of As(3+) to the alpha and beta MT domains is shown to be noncooperative and involves three sequential, bimolecular metalation steps. The analyses allow for the first time the complete simulation of the experimental data for the stepwise metalation reaction of MT showing the relative concentrations of the metal-free, apo MT and each of the As-MT intermediate species as a function of time and temperature. At room temperature (298 K) and pH 3.5, the individual rate constants for the first, second, and third As(3+) binding to apo-alphaMT are 5.5, 6.3, and 3.9 M(-)(1) s(-)(1) and for apo-betaMT the constants are 3.6, 2.0, and 0.6 M(-)(1) s(-)(1). The activation energy for formation of As(1)-H(6)-betaMT is 32 kJ mol(-)(1), for As(2)-H(3)-betaMT it is 35 kJ mol(-)(1), for As(3)-betaMT it is 29 kJ mol(-)(1), for As(1)-H(8)-alphaMT it is 33 kJ mol(-)(1), for As(2)-H(5)-alphaMT it is 29 kJ mol(-)(1), and for As(3)-H(2)-alphaMT it is 23 kJ mol(-)(1).Journal of the American Chemical Society 10/2006; 128(38):12473-83. · 10.68 Impact Factor
Article: Arsenic geochemistry and health.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Arsenic occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is widely distributed in the environment. Natural mineralization and activities of microorganisms enhance arsenic mobilization in the environment but human intervention has exacerbated arsenic contamination. Although arsenic is useful for industrial, agricultural, medicinal and other purposes, it exerts a toxic effect in a variety of organisms, including humans. Arsenic exposure may not only affect and disable organs of the body, especially the skin, but may also interfere with the proper functioning of the immune system. This paper, therefore, generally highlights the toxic effects of arsenic as well as its mobilization in the natural environment and possible controls. It also briefly attempts to outline the impact of arsenic on the immune system, whose alteration could lead to viral/bacterial infections.Environment International 08/2005; 31(5):631-41. · 6.25 Impact Factor