Chronic helminth infections modulate allergen-specific immune responses: Protection against development of allergic disorders?
ABSTRACT Inflammatory diseases are on the rise in westernized countries, but also in urbanized areas of developing countries. A number of studies have now demonstrated a negative association between helminth infections and inflammatory diseases, such as allergy, suggesting a potential role for helminth-induced immune responses. However, this is not the case for all studies. In this review both supporting and opposing literature on the role of helminth infections, particularly in allergy, are discussed. Furthermore, the concept is put forward that chronic helminth infections, but not acute infections, may be associated with the expression of regulatory networks necessary for downmodulating allergic immune responses to harmless antigens. Lastly, different components of helminth-induced regulatory networks are detailed, such as the role of regulatory T and B cells, modulation of dendritic cells, the presence of suppressory alternatively activated macrophages, and their individual contributions to protection against allergic diseases. Advantage should be taken from this knowledge to identify and select individual helminth-derived molecules that may harbor therapeutic potential against inflammatory diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The noticeable phenomenon of an increased frequency of immune-inflammatory disorders, in the industrialized world, has led to the implication of parasitic infections in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Most of the studies investigated the infection connection to allergy have centered on helminthes. Parasitic helminthes are a group of metazoans that are evolutionary diverse, yet converge to evolve common modes of immunomodulation. Helminth immuneregulation is mainly mediated by a regulatory response including Treg and Breg cells with alternatively-activated macrophages. There is increasing evidence for a causal relationship between helminth infection and allergic hyporesponsiveness, however, conflicting data are still generating. The helminth immunoregulation seems to be species-specific and phase-specific. It depends on the stage of the clinical disease which correlates with a corresponding parasitic stage (egg, larva or mature adult). Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms utilized by helminthes to manipulate the immune system and the consequent bystander immunomodulatory responses towards environmental allergens. We especially focus on parasitic species and molecules involved in the modulation of allergic disorders and summarize the experimental and clinical trials using them as therapeutic agents. We also discuss the potentials and obstacles, for helminthes and/or their derived molecules, to emerge as novel therapeutic modalities
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ABSTRACT: In sub-Saharan Africa poly-parasite infections are frequently observed in children, and with poly-parasitism modulating immune mechanisms, mediated by cytokines and chemokines, are required to prevent overwhelming inflammation and host tissue damage. We analyzed in children co-infected with helminthes and protozoan parasites their cellular production of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to parasite antigens and allergens. Intestinal and intravascular parasite infections were detected in stool and urines samples. The in vitro cellular cytokine and chemokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to parasite antigens and allergens were analysed in children (n = 87) with single and poly-parasite infection, and skin prick test reactivity to fungus and mite allergens was determined in singly and poly-parasitized children (n = 509). In children Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (62%), Necator americanus (31%), Schistosoma haematobium (28%), S. mansoni (21%), Hymenolepis nana (2%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1%) were diagnosed. Singly infected were 37%, 47% were positive for 2 or more parasite species and 16% were infection-free. When PBMC were stimulated in vitro with parasite antigens and allergens, regulatory-type cytokine IL-27 and alarmin-type IL-33 enhanced with poly-parasite infections whilst IL-10 and pro-inflammatory MIP3-α/CCL20 and MIG/CXCL9 were produced in similar amounts in singly or poly-parasitized children. The co-stimulation in vitro of PBMC with mite allergens and Ascaris lumbricoides antigens depressed the allergen-induced pro-inflammatory IL-27, IL-33 and MIP3-α/CCL20 responses while regulatory IL-10 remained unaffected. Post albendazole and/or praziquantel treatment, the cellular release of IL-10, IL-33, MIP3-α/CCL20 and MIG/CXCL9 lessened significantly in all children infection groups. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens was investigated in 509 children, and positive SPT responses were found in 23% of the infection-free, and in 47%, 53% and 56% of the singly, doubly and poly-parasite infected, respectively. In children co-infected with helminthes and protozoan parasites a mixed cellular response profile of both inflammatory and regulatory chemokines and cytokines was stimulated by individual antigens and allergens, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines enhanced with an increasing number of parasite infections, and in poly-parasitized children skin prick test reactivity to allergens extracts was highest.Journal of Inflammation 12/2015; 12(1):5. DOI:10.1186/s12950-015-0050-y · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Helminth parasites are a highly successful group of pathogens that challenge the immune system in a manner distinct from rapidly replicating infectious agents. Of this group, roundworms (nematodes) that dwell in the intestines of humans and other animals are prevalent worldwide. Currently, more than one billion people are infected by at least one species, often for extended periods of time. Thus, host-protective immunity is rarely complete. The reasons for this are complex, but laboratory investigation of tractable model systems in which protective immunity is effective has provided a mechanistic understanding of resistance that is characterized almost universally by a type 2/T helper 2 response. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of susceptibility has also provided the basis for defining host immunoregulation and parasite-evasion strategies, helping place in context the changing patterns of immunological disease observed worldwide. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 33 is March 21, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Immunology 12/2014; DOI:10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120218 · 41.39 Impact Factor