Matrix metalloproteinases as mediators of tissue injury in different forms of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tissue destruction, regeneration, inflammation and apoptosis and several of them are upregulated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in skin. Although some MMPs associate with organ manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), their role in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE) is elusive.
Our aim was to evaluate the expression of MMPs in SLE, subacute cutaneous LE (SCLE) and discoid LE (DLE) skin lesions and their relation to apoptosis and epidermal changes.
Lesional skin biopsies from 20 patients with SLE, 20 with DLE and 17 with SCLE, and from UVA/UVB-photoprovoked skin of healthy volunteers were immunostained using antibodies to multiple MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling) method was used for detection of apoptosis.
MMP-3, -10, -19 and -26 were abundantly expressed by keratinocytes in SLE, DLE and SCLE skin samples. MMP-7 was detected in keratinocytes in regions of oedema and vacuolization especially in SLE and SCLE, while MMP-14 was only occasionally observed in keratinocytes. Photoprovocation did not induce MMP-10 or -26 expression in skin of healthy volunteers. Epithelial TIMP-1 expression was low while occasional positive fibroblasts were seen in the dermis. TIMP-3 was abundantly expressed in the epidermis, endothelial cells and macrophages.
Different subtypes of cutaneous LE are fairly similar in their MMP expression profile. MMP-3 and -10 mediate both epidermal changes and dermal tissue remodelling but are not present in lymphocytes. Low expression of TIMP-1 suggests that lupus skin is characterized by proteolytic events, and targeted action using selective MMP inhibitors may reduce lupus-induced damage in inflamed tissues.
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ABSTRACT: For more than two decades, the view that tumour-associated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were required for peritumour tissue degradation and metastasis dominated the drive to develop MMP inhibitors as anticancer therapeutics. Until recently, clinical trials with MMP inhibitors have yielded disappointing results, highlighting the need for better insight into the mechanisms by which this growing family of multifunctional enzymes contribute to tumour growth. It is now recognized that MMP activity is tightly regulated at several levels, providing new avenues for blocking these enzymes. What are the different approaches that can be used to target MMPs, and which of these might lead to new therapeutic strategies for cancer?Nature reviews. Cancer 10/2002; 2(9):657-72. · 35.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A recent study by Bangert et al suggests that there are quantitative histologic differences that distinguish discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). Utilizing criteria proposed by these authors, we examined 77 biopsy specimens from 63 patients with various forms of lupus erythematosus, but we were unable to predict the correct clinical subset. Using the clinical diagnosis of DLE as a positive reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity for the overall pathologic diagnosis of DLE were 55% and 42%, respectively. Statistically significant histologic factors favoring the diagnosis of DLE over SCLE in the present study were pilosebaceous atrophy, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, basement membrane thickening around the follicles, subepidermal edema, and vascular ectasia. These histologic variables were entered into a forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis to determine distinct predictors of DLE vs SCLE. This analysis showed that pilosebaceous atrophy was the only distinct significant predictor of DLE vs SCLE. These results suggest that the histologic differentiation of clinically defined DLE and SCLE cannot be established from the histologic features examined.Archives of Dermatology 02/1990; 126(1):52-5. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases are either tissue-specific like multiple sclerosis (MS) or multisystemic like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), although clinically both exhibit common features. To gain insight into the properties of the genes involved in each disease we have investigated the gene expression signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in MS and SLE in comparison to healthy subjects. Total RNA was purified, hybridized to Genechip array and analysed in 36 subjects (13 relapsing-remitting MS patients, five SLE patients and 18 age-matched healthy subjects that served as controls). Additional blood samples from 15 relapsing-remitting MS patients, 8 SLE patients and 10 healthy subjects were used for confirmation of microarray gene expression findings by ELISA and RT-PCR. MS and SLE patients demonstrated a common gene expression autoimmune signature of 541 genes which differentiated them from healthy subjects. The autoimmune signature included genes that encode proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, inflammation and regulation of matrix metalloproteinase pathways. Specifically, decreased TIMP1 gene expression in the autoimmunity signature suggests increased MMP activity in target tissues as a result of the lack of feedback mechanism. An additional different disease specific signature identified the gene expression pattern for MS (1031 genes), mainly associated with over-expression of adhesion molecules and down-expression of heat shock proteins; the SLE specific signature (1146 genes) mainly involved DNA damage/repair pathways that result in production of nuclear autoantibodies. These results provide insights into the genetic pathways underlying autoimmune diseases, and identify specific disease-associated signatures that may enable targetted disease-related specific therapies to be developed.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 11/2004; 138(1):164-70. · 3.41 Impact Factor