Macrophage migration inhibitory factor up-regulates alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa.
ABSTRACT Human endometrium undergoes a series of dynamic physiological changes during the menstrual cycle of reproductive age women. Many factors, including hormones, cytokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and integrins, are essential for the success of embryonic implantation into endometrial tissue. Herein, we used a well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, Ishikawa, to investigate in vitro the role played by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the regulation of endometrial receptivity markers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that MIF induced a slight increase in alpha(v) (alphav) mRNA integrin subunit expression during the first 12h, but reached a significant difference after 24h MIF treatment compared to control, whereas beta(3) (beta3) integrin subunit displayed significant increase in mRNA 2h following treatment. Immunocytofluorescence showed strong alphav and beta3 immunostaining at 25 ng/ml MIF, and Western blotting clearly indicated increased alphav and beta3 protein expression. MIF treatment significantly stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner after 24 h treatment. Moreover, immunocytofluorescence revealed positive VEGF immunostaining compared to control, and analysis by ELISA of VEGF release in culture supernatants demonstrated that MIF (25 ng/ml) significantly induced VEGF secretion at 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that MIF directly up-regulates alphavbeta3 integrin and VEGF expression in human endometrial Ishikawa cells and may advance our understanding of factors involved in the establishment of endometrial receptivity and successful implantation.
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ABSTRACT: Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO) mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT) mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2), cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins), survival (B-cell lymphoma-2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth) factorsrelevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110434. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in HCC progression and their correlation with clinicopathological factors as well as the relationship between their expression levels. The expression of serum VEGF and MIF was evaluated in 150 patients with HCC and in 30 normal volunteers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). VEGF and MIF expression levels were evaluated by immunohisto-chemistry on tissue microarrays containing 150 HCCs with paired adjacent non-cancer liver tissues. VEGF and MIF mRNA levels were determined by quantitative PCR in another 48 HCCs. The correlation of VEGF and MIF with clinicopathological factors was analyzed in HCC. Serum VEGF and MIF concentrations were higher in HCC patients than the levels in the controls. The expression levels of VEGF and MIF in the HCC tissues were both higher than those in the adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. Overexpression of VEGF and MIF was significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.027 and 0.022, respectively), intrahepatic metastasis (P=0.032 and 0.027, respectively), vascular invasion (P=0.044 and 0.039, respectively) and TNM stage (P=0.028 and 0.013, respectively). Furthermore, VEGF and MIF mRNA levels were higher in HCC compared to levels in the paired non-cancer liver tissues. VEGF and MIF mRNA levels were correlated with tumor stage and metastasis. The expression of VEGF was positively related with MIF expression in HCC. The expression of MIF and VEGF in HCC was markedly positively correlated, which suggests that MIF and VEGF play an important role in the progression of HCC. Both factors may concomitantly accelerate the progression of HCC.Oncology Reports 12/2013; · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is expressed by villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast. This study was aimed to investigate functional relevance of MIF for human trophoblast. MIF mRNA and protein were documented in cytotrophoblast (CT) and extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo by RT-PCR, Western blot (WB), and immunocytochemistry. Recombinant human MIF (rhMIF), or its specific inhibitor (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) were used in Wound healing migration and Matrigel invasion tests. Potential effectors, integrin subunits and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were studied using WB and gelatin zymography, respectively. Blocking endogenous MIF by ISO-1 decreased HTR-8/SVneo cell migration dose dependently, most significantly with 200 μg/ml to 65% of control. Supplementation with rhMIF induced a significant stimulation to 129% of control with 200 ng/ml. In CT cell invasion test, ISO-1 at 200 μg/ml reduced invasion to 59% of control, while rhMIF (200 ng/ml) induced stimulation to 159% of control. In HTR-8/SVneo cells, invasion was significantly inhibited by ISO-1 to 40%, and increased to 150% of control by rhMIF (200 ng/ml). Integrin α1 was reduced by ISO-1 in both cell types, while integrins α5 and β1 were not changed. Addition of rhMIF increased integrin α1. In the presence of ISO-1, levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were reduced in CT and HTR-8/SVneo, while rhMIF stimulated MMP-2 in CT and MMP-9 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Reported findings provide the first insight into the cellular effects of MIF in human trophoblast, which acts to promote cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Placenta 12/2014; 36(2). · 3.29 Impact Factor