Article

Structural studies of the final enzyme in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway-saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A4.
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.96). 11/2007; 373(3):745-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.08.044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The 1.64 A structure of the apoenzyme form of saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows the enzyme to be composed of two domains with similar dinucleotide binding folds with a deep cleft at the interface. The structure reveals homology to alanine dehydrogenase, despite low primary sequence similarity. A model of the ternary complex of SDH, NAD, and saccharopine identifies residues Lys77 and Glu122 as potentially important for substrate binding and/or catalysis, consistent with a proton shuttle mechanism. Furthermore, the model suggests that a conformational change is required for catalysis and that residues Lys99 and Asp281 may be instrumental in mediating this change. Analysis of the crystal structure in the context of other homologous enzymes from pathogenic fungi and human sources sheds light into the suitability of SDH as a target for antimicrobial drug development.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
58 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Amino acid biosynthesis forms part of an integrated stress response against oxidants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. Here we show an essential role of the L-lysine biosynthesis pathway in response to the oxidative stress condition induced by the lipid oxidant - linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LoaOOH), by means of transcriptomic profiling and phenotypic analysis, and using the deletion mutant dal80∆ and lysine auxotroph lys1∆. A comprehensive up-regulation of lysine biosynthetic genes (LYS1, LYS2, LYS4, LYS9, LYS12, LYS20 and LYS21) was revealed in dal80Δ following the oxidant challenge. The lysine auxotroph (lys1∆) exhibited a significant decrease in growth compared with that of BY4743 upon exposure to LoaOOH, albeit with the sufficient provision of lysine in the medium. Furthermore, the growth of wild type BY4743 exposed to LoaOOH was also greatly reduced in lysine deficient conditions, despite a full complement of lysine biosynthetic genes. Amino acid analysis of LoaOOH-treated yeast showed the level of cellular lysine remained unchanged throughout oxidant challenge, suggesting that the induced lysine biosynthesis leads to a steady-state metabolism as compared to the untreated yeast cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that lysine availability and its biosynthesis pathway play an important role in protecting the cell fromlipid peroxide-induced oxidative stress, which is directly related to understanding environmental stress and industrial yeast management in brewing, wine making and baking.
    Free Radical Research 09/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the NAD+ dependent oxidative deamination of saccharopine to form lysine (Lys) and α-ketoglutarate (α-kg). The active site of SDH has a number of conserved residues that are believed important to the overall reaction. Lysine 13, positioned near the active site base (K77), forms a hydrogen bond to E78 neutralizing it, and contributing to setting the pKa of the catalytic residues to near neutral pH. Glutamate 16 is within hydrogen bond distance to the Nε atom of R18, which has strong H-bonding interactions with the α-carboxylate and α-oxo groups of α-kg. Mutation of K13 to M and E16 to Q decreased kcat by about 15-fold, and primary and solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects measured with the mutant enzymes indicate hydride transfer is rate limiting for the overall reaction. The pH-rate profiles for K13M exhibited no pH dependence, consistent with an increase in negative charge in the active site resulting in the perturbation in the pKas of catalytic groups. Elimination of E16 affects optimal positioning of R18, which is involved in binding and holding α-kg in the correct conformation for optimum catalysis. In agreement, a ΔΔG°' of 2.60 kcal/mol is estimated from the change in Kα-kg for replacing E16 with Q.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2012; 522(1):57-61. · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH) is the last enzyme in the AAA pathway of l-lysine biosynthesis. On the basis of crystal structures of SDH, the whole catalytic cycle of SDH has been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) method. Calculation results indicate that hydride transfer is the rate-limiting step with an energy barrier of 25.02kcal/mol, and the overall catalytic reaction is calculated to be endothermic by 9.63kcal/mol. Residue Lys77 is proved to be functional only in the process of saccharopine deprotonation until the formation of product l-lysine, and residue His96 is confirmed to take part in multiple proton transfer processes and can be described as a proton transfer station. From the point of view of energy, the SDH catalytic reaction for the synthesis of l-lysine is unfavorable compared with its reverse reaction for the synthesis of saccharopine. These results are essentially consistent with the experimental observations from pH dependence of kinetic parameters and isotope effects.
    Journal of molecular graphics & modelling 05/2013; 44C:17-25. · 2.17 Impact Factor