Phosphorylation-dependent Conformational Transition of the Cardiac Specific N-Extension of Troponin I in Cardiac Troponin

Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45267, USA.
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.96). 11/2007; 373(3):706-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.08.035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We present here the solution structure for the bisphosphorylated form of the cardiac N-extension of troponin I (cTnI(1-32)), a region for which there are no previous high-resolution data. Using this structure, the X-ray crystal structure of the cardiac troponin core, and uniform density models of the troponin components derived from neutron contrast variation data, we built atomic models for troponin that show the conformational transition in cardiac troponin induced by bisphosphorylation. In the absence of phosphorylation, our NMR data and sequence analyses indicate a less structured cardiac N-extension with a propensity for a helical region surrounding the phosphorylation motif, followed by a helical C-terminal region (residues 25-30). In this conformation, TnI(1-32) interacts with the N-lobe of cardiac troponin C (cTnC) and thus is positioned to modulate myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. Bisphosphorylation at Ser23/24 extends the C-terminal helix (residues 21-30) which results in weakening interactions with the N-lobe of cTnC and a re-positioning of the acidic amino terminus of cTnI(1-32) for favorable interactions with basic regions, likely the inhibitory region of cTnI. An extended poly(L-proline)II helix between residues 11 and 19 serves as the rigid linker that aids in re-positioning the amino terminus of cTnI(1-32) upon bisphosphorylation at Ser23/24. We propose that it is these electrostatic interactions between the acidic amino terminus of cTnI(1-32) and the basic inhibitory region of troponin I that induces a bending of cTnI at the end that interacts with cTnC. This model provides a molecular mechanism for the observed changes in cross-bridge kinetics upon TnI phosphorylation.

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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac troponin (cTn) is a key molecule in the regulation of human cardiac muscle contraction. The N-terminal cardiac-specific peptide of the inhibitory subunit of troponin, cTnI (cTnI1-39), is a target for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) during β-adrenergic stimulation. We recently presented evidence indicating that this peptide interacts with the inhibitory peptide (cTnl137-147) when S23 and S24 are phosphorylated. The inhibitory peptide is also the target of the point mutation cTnI-R145G, which is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a disease associated with sudden death in apparently healthy young adults. It has been shown that both phosphorylation and this mutation alter the cTnC-cTnI (C-I) interaction, which plays a crucial role in modulating contractile activation. However, little is known about the molecular-level events underlying this modulation. Here, we computationally investigated the effects of the cTnI-R145G mutation on the dynamics of cTn, cTnC Ca(2+) handling, and the C-I interaction. Comparisons were made with the cTnI-R145G/S23D/S24D phosphomimic mutation, which has been used both experimentally and computationally to study the cTnI N-terminal specific effects of PKA phosphorylation. Additional comparisons between the phosphomimic mutations and the real phosphorylations were made. For this purpose, we ran triplicate 150 ns molecular dynamics simulations of cTnI-R145G Ca(2+)-bound cTnC1-161-cTnI1-172-cTnT236-285, cTnI-R145G/S23D/S24D Ca(2+)-bound cTnC1-161-cTnI1-172-cTnT236-285, and cTnI-R145G/PS23/PS24 Ca(2+)-bound cTnC1-161-cTnI1-172-cTnT236-285, respectively. We found that the cTnI-R145G mutation did not impact the overall dynamics of cTn, but stabilized crucial Ca(2+)-coordinating interactions. However, the phosphomimic mutations increased overall cTn fluctuations and destabilized Ca(2+) coordination. Interestingly, cTnI-R145G blunted the intrasubunit interactions between the cTnI N-terminal extension and the cTnI inhibitory peptide, which have been suggested to play a crucial role in modulating troponin function during β-adrenergic stimulation. These findings offer a molecular-level explanation for how the HCM mutation cTnI-R145G reduces the modulation of cTn by phosphorylation of S23/S24 during β-adrenergic stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of troponin I by protein kinase A (PKA) reduces Ca(2+) sensitivity and increases the rate of Ca(2+) release from troponin C and the rate of relaxation in cardiac muscle. In vitro experiments indicate that mutations that cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) uncouple this modulation, but this has not been demonstrated in an intact contractile system. Using a Ca(2+)-jump protocol, we measured the effect of the DCM-causing mutation ACTC E361G on the equilibrium and kinetic parameters of Ca(2+) regulation of contractility in single transgenic mouse heart myofibrils. We used propranolol treatment of mice to reduce the level of troponin I and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) phosphorylation in their hearts before isolating the myofibrils. In nontransgenic mouse myofibrils, the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force was increased, the fast relaxation phase rate constant, kREL, was reduced, and the length of the slow linear phase, tLIN, was increased when the troponin I phosphorylation level was reduced from 1.02 to 0.3 molPi/TnI (EC50 P/unP = 1.8 ± 0.2, p < 0.001). Native myofibrils from ACTC E361G transgenic mice had a 2.4-fold higher Ca(2+) sensitivity than nontransgenic mouse myofibrils. Strikingly, the Ca(2+) sensitivity and relaxation parameters of ACTC E361G myofibrils did not depend on the troponin I phosphorylation level (EC50 P/unP = 0.88 ± 0.17, p = 0.39). Nevertheless, modulation of the Ca(2+) sensitivity of ACTC E361G myofibrils by sarcomere length or EMD57033 was indistinguishable from that of nontransgenic myofibrils. Overall, EC50 measured in different conditions varied over a 7-fold range. The time course of relaxation, as defined by tLIN and kREL, was correlated with EC50 but varied by just 2.7- and 3.3-fold, respectively. Our results confirm that troponin I phosphorylation specifically alters the Ca(2+) sensitivity of isometric tension and the time course of relaxation in cardiac muscle myofibrils. Moreover, the DCM-causing mutation ACTC E361G blunts this phosphorylation-dependent response without affecting other parameters of contraction, including length-dependent activation and the response to EMD57033.
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    ABSTRACT: The α-helix in troponin I (TnI) at the interface with troponin T (TnT) is a highly conserved structure. A point mutation in this region, A116G, was found in human cardiac TnI in a case of cardiomyopathy. An adjacent dominantly negative mutation found in turkey cardiac TnI (K111C, equivalent to K117C in human and K118C in mouse) decreased diastolic function and blunted beta-adrenergic response in transgenic mice. To investigate the functional importance of the TnI-TnT interface and pathological impact of the cardiac TnI mutations, we engineered K118C and A117G mutations in mouse cardiac TnI for functional studies. Despite their adjacent locations, A117G substitution results in faster mobility of cardiac TnI in SDS-PAGE whereas K118C decreases gel mobility, indicating significant and distinct changes in overall protein conformation. Consistently, monoclonal antibody epitope analysis demonstrated distinct local and remote conformational alterations in the two mutant proteins. Protein binding assays showed that K118C, but not A117G, decreased the relative binding affinity of cardiac TnI for TnT. K118C mutation decreased binding affinity for troponin C in a Ca2+-dependent manner, whereas A117G had a similar but less profound effect. Protein kinase A phosphorylation or truncation to remove the cardiac specific N-terminal extension of cardiac TnI resulted in similar conformational changes in the region interfacing with TnT and minimized the functional impacts of the mutations. The data demonstrate potent conformational and functional impacts of the TnT-interfacing helix in TnI and suggest a role of the N-terminal extension of cardiac TnI in modulating TnI-TnT interface functions.
    01/2015; 80. DOI:10.1016/j.fob.2015.01.001