The association of a tobacco-specific biomarker and cigarette consumption and its dependence on host characteristics
ABSTRACT The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent carcinogen, which can be characterized by urinary concentrations of the metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronide. Using baseline data in current smokers from four clinical trials, we examine the associations of urinary cotinine with CPD and of total NNAL with cotinine and the modification of these associations by several host factors. There was a linear relationship between ln(cotinine) and ln(CPD) within categories of the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence and of age. The increasing trend was significantly smaller for subjects with high and very high nicotine addiction and for older subjects and larger in females than males. The regression of ln(total NNAL/cotinine) on ln(cotinine) declined linearly, suggesting reduced NNK uptake per unit cotinine with increasing cotinine. The decline in trend was greater in subjects with increased CPD, with greater nicotine addiction, and at older ages and was smaller in females, although gender differences were small. Variations in the ratio with host characteristics were generally similar to a recent epidemiologic analysis of effect modification of the association between lung cancer and cigarette smoking.
- SourceAvailable from: Neil Caporaso
British Journal of Cancer 02/2013; 108(5). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.76 · 4.82 Impact Factor
- "More directly, nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-buta- none (NNK) is a tobacco-specific carcinogen. Among smokers, ratios of urinary NNK metabolites to urinary cotinine declined with increasing cotinine, indicating reduced NNK uptake per unit cotinine with increasing cotinine (Lubin et al, 2007b "
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- "uivalents were reduced by 70% , 80% , and 44% in the previous confinement study compared to 50% , 48% and 7% , respectively , in this study . This is noteworthy since a reduction of CC consumption and / or CC tar yields in many studies does not necessarily result in a reduction in biomarkers of expo - sure to HPHC ( Hatsukami et al . , 2006a , b ; Lubin et al . , 2007 ; Joseph et al . , 2008 ) . While in short - term confinement studies , it is possible to obtain accurate data about the types and quantities of cigarettes smoked , longer - term ambulatory studies are reliant on accurate self - report - ing . It would be beneficial to develop and validate a biomarker for detection of dual use of a test"
ABSTRACT: This randomized, open-label, ambulatory, controlled clinical study investigated biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk and biomarkers of exposure to 10 selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in cigarette smoke in 316 male and female Polish smokers. Subjects were randomized to continue smoking conventional cigarettes (CC; N=79) or switch to smoking the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System series-K cigarette (EHCSS-K6; N=237). Biomarker assessments were performed at several time points during the study at baseline and during the 1-month investigational period. The primary biomarkers were high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts. No statistically significant differences in the two primary biomarkers were found between the study groups at the end of the study. End-of-study comparisons of secondary biomarkers between study groups indicated an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reductions in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels in the EHCSS-K6 group. All biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke HPHC were decreased in the EHCSS-K6 group, despite an increase in cigarette consumption, compared to the CC group. There were no apparent differences in any of the safety assessment parameters between the groups, and the overall incidence of study-related adverse events was low.Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 08/2012; 64(2). DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.08.006 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. In Iran, lung cancer is the fifth leading cancer and its prevalence rate has been increasing steadily. In this study, the clinicopathological aspects of lung cancer are discussed. Materials and Methods: Between October 2002 and November 2005, 242 (178 men, 64 women) patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were interviewed according to a questionnaire. Results: Women developed the disease at an earlier age than men (55.9±14.2 versus 61.3±12.3 years; p=0.004); 66.5% of lung cancer patients (85.4% of men and 14.1% of women) were smokers (p