The polyp prevention trial continued follow-up study: no effect of a low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit, and -vegetable diet on adenoma recurrence eight years after randomization.
ABSTRACT The Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) was a multicenter randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a high-fiber (18 g/1,000 kcal), high-fruit and -vegetable (3.5 servings/1,000 kcal), and low-fat (20% of total energy) diet on the recurrence of adenomatous polyps in the large bowel over a period of 4 years. Although intervention participants reported a significantly reduced intake of dietary fat, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intakes, their risk of recurrent adenomas was not significantly different from that of the controls. Since the PPT intervention lasted only 4 years, it is possible that participants need to be followed for a longer period of time before treatment differences in adenoma recurrence emerge, particularly if diet affects early events in the neoplastic process. The PPT-Continued Follow-up Study (PPT-CFS) was a post-intervention observation of PPT participants for an additional 4 years from the completion of the trial. Of the 1,905 PPT participants, 1,192 consented to participate in the PPT-CFS and confirmed colonoscopy reports were obtained on 801 participants. The mean time between the main trial end point colonoscopy and the first colonoscopy in the PPT-CFS was 3.94 years (intervention group) and 3.87 years (control group). The baseline characteristics of 405 intervention participants and 396 control participants in the PPT-CFS were quite similar. Even though the intervention group participants increased their fat intake and decreased their intakes of fiber, fruits, and vegetables during the PPT-CFS, they did not go back to their prerandomization baseline diet (P < 0.001 from paired t tests) and intake for each of the three dietary goals was still significantly different from that in the controls during the PPT-CFS (P < 0.001 from t tests). As the CFS participants are a subset of the people in the PPT study, the nonparticipants might not be missing completely at random. Therefore, a multiple imputation method was used to adjust for potential selection bias. The relative risk (95% confidence intervals) of recurrent adenoma in the intervention group compared with the control group was 0.98 (0.88-1.09). There were no significant intervention-control group differences in the relative risk for recurrence of an advanced adenoma (1.06; 0.81-1.39) or multiple adenomas (0.92; 0.77-1.10). We also used a multiple imputation method to examine the cumulative recurrence of adenomas through the end of the PPT-CFS: the intervention-control relative risk (95% confidence intervals) for any adenoma recurrence was 1.04 (0.98-1.09). This study failed to show any effect of a low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable eating pattern on adenoma recurrence even with 8 years of follow-up. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16(9):1745-52).
Article: Ongoing colorectal cancer risk despite surveillance colonoscopy: the Polyp Prevention Trial Continued Follow-up Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite regular colonoscopy, interval colorectal cancer (CRC) may occur. Long-term studies examining CRC rates in patients with previous colonoscopy are lacking. We examined the rate of interval CRC in the Polyp Prevention Trial Continued Follow-up Study (PPT-CFS), an observational study of PPT participants that began after the PPT ended. Prospective. A national U.S. community-based polyp prevention trial. Medical records of patients with CRC were collected, reviewed, and abstracted in a standardized fashion. Among 2079 PPT participants, 1297 (62.4%) agreed to participate in the PPT-CFS. They were followed for a median of 6.2 years after 4.3 years of median follow-up in the main PPT. Nine cases of CRC were diagnosed over 7626 person-years of observation (PYO), for an incidence rate of 1.2/1000 PYO. The ratio of CRCs observed compared with that expected by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.28-1.06). Including all CRCs (N = 22) since the beginning of the PPT, the observed compared with expected rate by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.47-1.05). Of patients in whom CRC developed in the PPT-CFS, 78% had a history of an advanced adenoma compared with only 43% of patients who remained cancer free (P = .04). A relatively small number of interval cancers were detected. Despite frequent colonoscopy during the PPT, in the years after the trial, there was a persistent ongoing risk of cancer. Subjects with a history of advanced adenoma are at increased risk of subsequent cancer and should be followed closely with continued surveillance.Gastrointestinal endoscopy 08/2009; 71(1):111-7. · 6.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal adenomas are benign lesions that may be precursors to colorectal cancer. No studies of African American women have investigated dietary patterns and the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. We examined data from the Black Women's Health Study to determine whether dietary patterns are associated with the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. This is a prospective cohort study of 59,000 participants followed biennially since 1995. During 155,414 person-years of follow-up from 1997 to 2007 among women who had had at least one screening colonoscopy, 620 incident cases of colorectal adenomas were identified. By using Cox regression models, we obtained incidence rate ratios (IRR) for colorectal adenoma in relation to quintiles of each of two dietary patterns, adjusting for other colorectal adenoma risk factors. Two dietary patterns, Western and prudent, were utilized to assess the association between dietary intake and adenoma risk. The highest quintile of prudent diet, relative to the lowest quintile, was significantly associated with 34% lower colorectal adenoma risk overall (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88; P(trend) < 0.01). Higher scores on the Western pattern were associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal adenoma (IRR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.85 for the highest quintile relative to the lowest; P(trend) = 0.01). Our findings suggest that African American women may be able to reduce their risk of developing colorectal adenomas by following a prudent dietary pattern and avoiding a more Western pattern. A dietary modification could have a strong impact in colorectal adenoma prevention in African American women.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 02/2011; 20(5):818-25. · 4.12 Impact Factor
Article: Foods and food groups associated with the incidence of colorectal polyps: the Adventist Health Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits. We assessed the association between diet and the risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed colorectal polyps among 2,818 subjects who had undergone colonoscopy. Subjects participated in 2 cohort studies: the AHS-1 in 1976 and the AHS-2 from 2002-2005. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps; 441 cases of colorectal polyps were identified. Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. <5/wk = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97) and dried fruit (OR 3+ times/wk vs. <1 time/wk = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.58-0.99). Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps.Nutrition and Cancer 05/2011; 63(4):565-72. · 2.78 Impact Factor