Myocardial Reperfusion Injury

Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London Hospital and Medical School, London, United Kingdom.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 10/2007; 357(11):1121-35. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra071667
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction is characterized by LV dilatation and development of a fibrotic scar, and is a critical factor for the prognosis of subsequent development of heart failure. Although myofiber organization is recognized as being important for preserving physiological cardiac function and structure, the anatomical features of injured myofibers during LV remodeling have not been fully defined. In a mouse model of ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, our previous histological assays demonstrated that broad fibrotic scarring extended from the initial infarct zone to the remote zone, and was clearly demarcated along midcircumferential myofibers. Additionally, no fibrosis was observed in longitudinal myofibers in the subendocardium and subepicardium. However, a histological analysis of tissue sections does not adequately indicate myofiber injury distribution throughout the entire heart. To address this, we investigated patterns of scar formation along myofibers using three-dimensional (3D) images obtained from multiple tissue sections from mouse hearts subjected to I/R injury. The fibrotic scar area observed in the 3D images was consistent with the distribution of the midcircumferential myofibers. At the apex, the scar formation tracked along the myofibers in an incomplete C-shaped ring that converged to a triangular shape toward the end. Our findings suggest that myocyte injury after transient coronary ligation extends along myofibers, rather than following the path of coronary arteries penetrating the myocardium. The injury pattern observed along myofibers after I/R injury could be used to predict prognoses for patients with myocardial infarction.
    07/2014; 2(7). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12072
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    ABSTRACT: While inhibition of class I/IIb histone deacetylases (HDACs) protects the mammalian heart from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, class selective effects remain unexamined. We hypothesized that selective inhibition of class I HDACs would preserve left ventricular contractile function following IR in isolated hearts. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were injected with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, 0.63 mg/kg), the class I/IIb HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 mg/kg), the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat (MS-275, 10 mg/kg), or the HDAC6 (class IIb) inhibitor tubastatin A (10 mg/kg). After 24 h, hearts were isolated and perfused in Langendorff mode for 30 min (Sham) or subjected to 30 min global ischemia and 120 min global reperfusion (IR). A saline filled balloon attached to a pressure transducer was placed in the LV to monitor contractile function. After perfusion, LV tissue was collected for measurements of antioxidant protein levels and infarct area. At the conclusion of IR, MS-275 pretreatment was associated with significant preservation of developed pressure, rate of pressure generation, rate of pressure relaxation and rate pressure product, as compared to vehicle treated hearts. There was significant reduction of infarct area with MS-275 pretreatment. Contractile function was not significantly restored in hearts treated with trichostatin A or tubastatin A. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase protein and mRNA in hearts from animals pretreated with MS-275 were increased following IR, as compared to Sham. This was associated with a dramatic enrichment of nuclear FOXO3a transcription factor, which mediates the expression of SOD2 and catalase. Tubastatin A treatment was associated with significantly decreased catalase levels after IR. Class I HDAC inhibition elicits protection of contractile function following IR, which is associated with increased expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Class I/IIb HDAC inhibition with trichostatin A or selective inhibition of HDAC6 with tubastatin A was not protective. This study highlights the need for the development of new strategies that target specific HDAC isoforms in cardiac ischemia reperfusion.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2014; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.03.005 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cold ischemia associated with cold static storage is an independent risk factor for primary allograft failure and survival of patients after orthotopic heart transplantation. The effects of normothermic ex vivo allograft blood perfusion on outcomes after orthotopic heart transplantation compared to cold static storage have been studied.Methods: In this prospective, nonrandomized, single-institutional clinical study, normothermic ex vivo allograft blood perfusion has been performed using an organ care system (OCS) (TransMedics, Andover, MA, USA). Included were consecutive adult transplantation patients who received an orthotopic heart transplantation (oHTx) without a history of any organ transplantation, in the absence of a congenital heart disorder as an underlying disease and not being in need of a combined heart-lung transplantation. Furthermore, patients with fixed pulmonary hypertension, ventilator dependency, chronic renal failure, or panel reactive antibodies >20% and positive T-cell cross-matching were excluded. Inclusion criteria for donor hearts was age of <55 years, systolic blood pressure >85 mmHg at the time of final heart assessment under moderate inotropic support, heart rate of <120 bpm at the time of explantation, and left ventricular ejection fraction >40% assessed by an transcutaneous echo/Doppler study with the absence of gross wall motion abnormalities, absence of left ventricular hypertrophy, and absence of valve abnormalities. Donor hearts which were conventionally cold stored with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (Custodiol; Koehler Chemie, Ansbach, Germany) constituted the control group. The primary end point was the recipients' survival at 30 days and 1 and 2 years after their heart transplantation. Secondary end points were primary and chronic allograft failure, noncardiac complications, and length of hospital stay.Results: Over a 2-year period (January 2006 to July 2008), 159 adult cardiac allografts were transplanted. Twenty-nine were assigned for normothermic ex vivo allograft blood perfusion and 130 for cold static storage with HTK solution. Cumulative survival rates at 30 days and 1 and 2 years were 96%, 89%, and 89%, respectively, whereas in the cold static storage group survival after oHTx was 95%, 81%, and 79%. Primary graft failure was less frequent in the recipients of an oHTx who received a donor heart which had been preserved with normothermic ex vivo allograft blood perfusion using an OCS (6.89% versus 15.3%; P = .20). Episodes of severe acute rejection (23% versus 17.2%; P = .73), as well as, cases of acute renal failure requiring haemodialysis (25.3% versus 10%; P = .05) were more frequent diagnosed among recipients of a donor heart which had been preserved using the cold static storage. The length of hospital stay did not differ (26 days versus 28 days; P = .80) in both groups.Conclusions: Normothermic ex vivo allograft blood perfusion in adult clinical orthotopic heart transplantation contributes to better outcomes after transplantation in regard to recipient survival, incidence of primary graft dysfunction, and incidence of acute rejection.
    The Heart Surgery Forum 06/2014; 17(3):E141-5. DOI:10.1532/HSF98.2014332 · 0.56 Impact Factor