Towards a possible aetiology for depressions?

Institute of Pediatric Research, Rikshospitalet, N-0027 Oslo, Norway. .
Behavioral and Brain Functions (Impact Factor: 1.97). 02/2007; 3(1):47. DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-3-47
Source: PubMed


Since a genetic disposition for depression is probable, there ought to be biochemical changes. Increased peptide levels with relevant bioactivities have been found in urine in a previous investigation, which may be such changes.
Urine from patients with severe depression according to ICD 10 have been run on reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, and off line mass spectrometry was performed on some of these peptides.
We find overlapping patterns of peptide peaks in severe depression, but with considerable individuality. Mass spectrometry shows that some of these peptides are probably of dietary origin, because their sequences are found only in certain dietary proteins. Opioids from casein and gliadin are typical examples.
Our data show that the disposition must be polygenetic because some peptide peaks with the same bioactivity are of different length in different patients, but with the same diagnosis. However, some of the peaks are common Peptide increase in urine is found when break down is deficient, and the data presented agree with reports on peptidase deficiencies in depression. Antidepressant drugs decrease the peptide level after about 3 weeks.

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    • "Chemical analysis of urinary peptides presents numerous difficulties. However, a reverse-phase (High- Performance Liquid Chromatography) HPLC method based on that detailed by ourselves [18] proves to be satisfactory , separating hydrophilic molecules from the hydrophobic , (which include short chain peptides): the latter elute in the 2nd half of the chromatographic run [18] Further characterization of the eluted molecules can be provided by on-line mass spectrometry [19]. This has enabled the identification of several exorphin peptides, including casomorphins. "

    Open Journal of Psychiatry 01/2012; 02(01):12-20. DOI:10.4236/ojpsych.2012.21003
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    • "Urine was examined since excess of low MW compounds will usually mean overflow to the urine, and urine is a very convenient body fluid to study for the patients. Hyperpeptiduria is usually dependent on deficient break down [8] "
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperpeptiduria and opioid excess have been re-ported in schizophrenia. According to Prof. Dr. L. Lindström, Sweden opioids may explain the patho-physiology of this syndrome. Therefore it is critical to elucidate the presence and nature of opioids in schi-zophrenia and diagnostic sub groups. First morning urine from untreated schizoaffective patients (ICD-10: F 25.1) was separated on HPLC and peaks that elute where different opioid standards appear, freeze dried, re-dissolved in methanol/water (50/50) and 10 mM formic acid. Mass spectrometry and MS/MS or frag-mentation mass spectrometry was performed. We found fragmentation pattern of beta-casomorphin 1 -3 and 1 -4 (bovine) identical to synthetic standards from Bachem. The aggregation tendency of peptides was much in evidence. The reported exorphins were found in the urine from 8 of 12 untreated schizoaffec-tive patients.
    Open Journal of Psychiatry 01/2012; 02(03). DOI:10.4236/ojpsych.2012.23029

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