Evaluation of a circumferential femoral head osteophyte as an early indicator of osteoarthritis characteristic of canine hip dysplasia in dogs
ABSTRACT To determine the relationship between a circumferential femoral head osteophyte (CFHO) and osteoarthritis characteristic of canine hip dysplasia, and to ascertain whether CFHO, like osteoarthritis, varies between diet-restricted and control-fed dogs.
Longitudinal cohort study.
48 Labrador Retrievers.
Dogs were paired by size, sex, and litter and assigned to 1 of 2 equal groups at 2 months of age. The control-fed group was fed ad libitum, and the diet-restricted group was fed 25% less on a pairwise basis of the same diet for life. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed yearly for life. Each radiograph was evaluated for radiographic signs of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia and for the presence and severity of a CFHO.
41 of the 48 (85.4%) dogs had a CFHO, which was detected at a median age of 5.4 years, and 33 of those 41 (80.5%) developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Nineteen (79.2%) dogs in the diet-restricted group and 22 (91.7%) in the control-fed group had a CFHO at a median age of 9 and 3 years, respectively. Of the dogs with a CFHO, 12 (63.2%) in the diet-restricted group and 20 (90.0%) in the control-fed group developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia at a median age of 11 and 6.5 years, respectively.
Results indicated a relationship between the CFHO and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. If a CFHO is present in Labrador Retrievers, it might be considered an early indicator of osteoarthritis.
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ABSTRACT: Ventrodorsal extended hip radiographs were analyzed from Foxhounds, Irish setters, Greyhounds, and Labrador retrievers radiographed four to seven times between 8 and 110 weeks of age. Occurrence in these 91 dogs of a puppy line, an ill-defined zone of proximal femoral metaphyseal sclerosis, a femoral neck linear sclerosis, or circumferential linear femoral head osteophytosis at 15-17 weeks of age were compared with hip joint laxity, as measured by distraction index, and to later findings of caudal curvilinear femoral neck osteophytes, circumferential femoral head osteophytes, hip incongruity consistent with hip dysplasia and degenerative joint disease by 52 weeks of age. A puppy line and/or femoral metaphyseal sclerosis was common at 15-17 weeks of age for dogs at mimimal risk (Greyhounds) and high risk (Foxhounds) of developing early degenerative joint disease associated with canine hip dysplasia. Though 44% of Greyhound hips had puppy lines and 28% had femoral metaphyseal sclerosis at 15-17 weeks of age, no Greyhound had a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte or circumferential femoral head osteophyte at 24-27 or 52 weeks of age. No significant relationship was found between occurrence of a puppy line, a circumferential femoral head osteophyte or femoral metaphyseal sclerosis at 15-17 weeks and canine hip dysplasia or degenerative joint disease incidence at 42-52 weeks. Presence of a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte in at least one hip at 24-27 weeks was significantly related to the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia by 42-52 weeks. When both a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte and a circumferential femoral head osteophyte were present in a hip at 24-27 weeks, degenerative joint disease was evident in all such hips by 42-52 weeks of age.Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 03/2009; 50(2):157-66. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2009.01509.x · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To report the effects of age and lifetime calorie restriction on development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in elbow joints of Labrador retrievers. Longitudinal cohort study. Labrador retriever dogs (n=48). Puppies from 7 litters were allotted to 2 groups of 24 dogs each. Diet-restricted (DR) dogs received 25% fewer calories than control-fed (CF) pair mates. Elbow radiographs were taken at 6 and 8 years of age and end of life (EOL). Gross and histopathologic evaluations for OA occurred at EOL. There was no statistical difference in radiographic OA frequency between groups at any of the time points. Radiographic OA severity was greater for CF dogs at 6 years only (P<.05). There was no significant difference between feeding groups for histopathologic prevalence or severity of OA. Similarly, there were no differences in gross OA lesions between the groups (P>.05). Fragmented medial coronoid process, un-united anconeal process, and osteochondrosis were not present in any elbow. No differences in prevalence or severity of radiographic and histopathologic elbow OA were found between feeding groups. Diet restriction resulted in a 1.8-year extension in median lifespan but no additional incremental worsening of elbow disease. Evaluation at time points <6 years may have revealed larger differences in OA prevalence and severity between the dietary groups. These findings support calorie restriction as a clinical tool to slow progression of elbow OA.Veterinary Surgery 03/2009; 38(2):192-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00487.x · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate distinctive features of pelvis and hip joint development of English Bulldogs throughout the first year of life. The pelves of 20 English Bulldogs were radiographed at three different ages (<4, 6-8, and 12-14 months). At each time point, the dogs were clinically evaluated and the abnormal hip joints were classified as mild, moderate, or severely deformed. The pelves were compared to a phantom study in which external rotation of a normal hemipelvis around its long axis was artificially created at different degrees, with different pelvic inclinations, and classified as either normal and without deformity, or as mild, moderate, or severely deformed. Hip joints and pelvic scores were statistically compared. Although none of the dogs were considered lame at the end of the study, none of the hips showed normal development; 77.5% were moderately to severely deformed at 12-14 months of age. At this age, 75% of the hemipelves had moderate to severe torsional deformity (>5.2 degrees of external rotation), with retroversion of the acetabulum confirmed by the presence of the crossover sign. An external rotation of the hemipelvis on its long axis >5 degrees was likely associated with a moderate to severely altered hip joint conformation. Abnormal hip conformation was common in this series of English Bulldogs. Torsional deformity of the pelves with acetabular retroversion was a common and distinctive feature, which has not yet been thoroughly studied in dogs. These findings need further evaluation in English Bulldogs as well as in other breeds.Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 12/2009; 23(1):19-27. DOI:10.3415/VCOT-09-02-0017 · 1.03 Impact Factor