Flavonoid and hydroxycinnamate profiles of english apple ciders.
ABSTRACT Seventeen phenolic compounds in 23 English apple ciders were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS (2). The total phenolic content of the ciders varied greatly ranging from 44 to 1559 mg/L. Four groups of compounds were identified, flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and dihydrochalcones. Hydroxycinnamates were the predominant group of phenolics in the majority of the ciders. Procyanidins were analyzed by HPLC after thiolysis, and total procyanidin content ranged from 8 to 722 mg/L and an average degree of polymerization of 2.5-3.5. This investigation of a wide range of ciders has shown a substantial variation in the profile and quantity of the phenolics. The analysis of single variety ciders highlighted the importance of using an apple cultivar with a high phenolic content to produce a phenolic-rich cider. Adaptations to the cider-making process could be used to increase the phenolic content with potential health benefits.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Plums are a rich source of nutritive and bioactive compounds. The objective was to evaluate the impact of fruit tissue (flesh and peel), ripening stage and cultivar on the composition of phytochemicals in plums (Prunus domestica L.) and to analyse the relation between total antioxidant activity (TAA) and the measured variables. RESULTS: The content of total sugars and total organic acids was higher in flesh but total phenolic content (TPC) and TAA was statistically higher in plum peel. The composition of sugars depended on fruit tissue, ripening stage and the cultivar. Ripening and fruit tissue affected the composition and concentrations of organic acids. TPC of 'Haganta' peel increased during ripening but there was no significant time trend for 'Jojo' peel and flesh of both cultivars. The composition of phenolics in peel depended on the cultivar, but in flesh on the cultivar and ripening. Ripening resulted in increased total anthocyanins and TAA in peel. TAA(peel) was positively correlated with TPC(peel) , total anthocyanins(peel) , cyanidin 3-glucoside(peel) and peonidin 3-rutinoside(peel) in the cultivar 'Haganta'. CONCLUSION: The composition of phytochemicals in P. domestica fruit depends on fruit tissue, ripening stage and the cultivar. Peel contributes to the TAA on average 20 times more than flesh. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 07/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds.Food Chemistry 01/2014; 152:261–270. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new, rapid, selective and sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-ToF-MS) strategy using automatic and simultaneous acquisition of exact mass at high and low collision energy, MS(E), has been developed to obtain polyphenolic profile of apples, apple pomace and apple juice from Asturian cider apples in a single run injection of 22min. MS(E) spectral data acquisition overcomes chromatographic co-elution problems, performing simultaneous collection of precursor ions as well as other ions produced as a result of their fragmentation, which allows resolving complex spectra from mixtures of precursor ions in an unsupervised way and eases their interpretation. Using this technique, 52 phenolic compounds of five different classes were readily characterized in these apple extracts in both positive and negative ionization modes. The spectral data for phenolic compounds obtained using this acquisition mode are comparable to those obtained by conventional LC-MS/MS as exemplified in this work. Among the 52 phenolic compounds identified in this work, 2 dihydrochalcones and 3 flavonols have been tentatively identified for the first time in apple products. Moreover, 2 flavanols, 4 dihydrochalcones, 9 hydroxycinnamic acids and 4 flavonols had not been previously reported in apple by ToF analysis to our knowledge.Journal of Chromatography A 09/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor