Flavonoid and Hydroxycinnamate Profiles of English Apple Ciders
ABSTRACT Seventeen phenolic compounds in 23 English apple ciders were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS (2). The total phenolic content of the ciders varied greatly ranging from 44 to 1559 mg/L. Four groups of compounds were identified, flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and dihydrochalcones. Hydroxycinnamates were the predominant group of phenolics in the majority of the ciders. Procyanidins were analyzed by HPLC after thiolysis, and total procyanidin content ranged from 8 to 722 mg/L and an average degree of polymerization of 2.5-3.5. This investigation of a wide range of ciders has shown a substantial variation in the profile and quantity of the phenolics. The analysis of single variety ciders highlighted the importance of using an apple cultivar with a high phenolic content to produce a phenolic-rich cider. Adaptations to the cider-making process could be used to increase the phenolic content with potential health benefits.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of fruit size (<26 mm, 26-28 mm, >28 mm) and fruit colour (Ctifl 4 and Ctifl 6) of ‘Kordia’ sweet cherry on composition of nutritive (sugars, organic acids) and bioactive (phenolics) compounds, on content of vitamin C, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) was evaluated. The compositional data analysis was used for comparing relative contents of chemical compounds. The differences in average composition were examined on the basis of multivariate analysis of variance and further analysis of variance for each isometric log-ratio transformed variable. Five compounds have been identified for the first time: dicaffeoylquinic acid ([M−H]− at m/z 515), procyanidin trimer ([M−H]− at m/z 865), quercetin-3-(2G-glucosyl-rutinoside) ([M−H]− at m/z 771), quercetin-3-galactoside ([M−H]− at m/z 463) and kaempferol-3-glucoside ([M−H]− at m/z 447). In the composition of sweet cherry ‘Kordia’ fruit bioactive compounds represented from 0.6% to 0.8%. The fruit colour modifies the chemical composition of phytochemicals more than fruit size; the two variables were correlated. More coloured fruit were larger, with better pomological traits and changed composition of nutritive compounds and phenolics.Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 03/2015; 38:121-130. DOI:10.1016/j.jfca.2014.10.007 · 2.26 Impact Factor
Article: Sustainable Cider Apple Production
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ABSTRACT: Quality changes during fruit ripening after the appearance of fruit colour of four Prunus domestica L. plum cultivars, ‘Jojo’, ‘Valor’, ‘Čačanska rodna’ and ‘Čačanska najbolja’, were investigated during 25 or 33 day periods. Fruit samples were analyzed for fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids content, fruit colour, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, sorbitol and sucrose), organic acids (malic, fumaric and shikimic acids), phenolics (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid and rutin) and anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-rutinoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside). Ripening resulted in statistically increased fruit weight and soluble solids, decreased fruit firmness, darker colour of fruits, increased concentration of total sugars, decreased concentration of total acids, and increased concentration of anthocyanins. There was no influence of ripening on the content of phenols. The results show significant influences of cultivar on fruit weight, soluble solids content, firmness, fruit colour, concentration of total acids, SUAC index, concentration of total phenols and anthocyanins in European plums.Food Chemistry 12/2008; 111(4-111):830-836. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.057 · 3.26 Impact Factor