Flavonoid and Hydroxycinnamate Profiles of English Apple Ciders
ABSTRACT Seventeen phenolic compounds in 23 English apple ciders were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS (2). The total phenolic content of the ciders varied greatly ranging from 44 to 1559 mg/L. Four groups of compounds were identified, flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and dihydrochalcones. Hydroxycinnamates were the predominant group of phenolics in the majority of the ciders. Procyanidins were analyzed by HPLC after thiolysis, and total procyanidin content ranged from 8 to 722 mg/L and an average degree of polymerization of 2.5-3.5. This investigation of a wide range of ciders has shown a substantial variation in the profile and quantity of the phenolics. The analysis of single variety ciders highlighted the importance of using an apple cultivar with a high phenolic content to produce a phenolic-rich cider. Adaptations to the cider-making process could be used to increase the phenolic content with potential health benefits.
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Article: Sustainable Cider Apple Production
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ABSTRACT: There is considerable evidence to show that a greater intake of apple contributes to improved health by reducing the risk of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. Apple fruit is a major source of phenol compounds, because its consumption is widespread in many countries and it is available on the market for the whole year. The phenolic composition of 67 varieties of apple cultivars (new and old varieties) was examined for the concentration of some important phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. For the first time, we have looked at the correlation and compared polyphenolic coumpounds in Golden Delicious variety and new varieties grown from it. Up to 18 compounds, including catechin, procyanidin, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis of crude extracts and after thiolysis and LC-MS. The mean content of total polyphenols lay between 523.02 and 2723.96 mg/100 g dw and depending upon the apples variety. Flavanols (catechin and oligomeric procyanidins) are the major class of apple polyphenols, representing more than 80%, followed by hydroxycinnamic acids (1-31%), flavonols (2-10%), dihydrochalcones (0.5-5%), and in red apples, anthocyanins (1%). In this study, the best correlation was found for the total polyphenols and ABTS method, with a lower correlation for FRAP and DPPH methods ( r = 0.871, 0.839, and 0.804, respectively). The presented data clearly demonstrated that new varieties, i.e., Ozark Gold, Julyred, and Jester, of apple had the same or higher value of bioactive compounds in comparison to the old varieties, i.e., Golden Delicious, Idared, and Jonagold.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2008; 56(15):6520-30. DOI:10.1021/jf800510j
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ABSTRACT: Quality changes during fruit ripening after the appearance of fruit colour of four Prunus domestica L. plum cultivars, ‘Jojo’, ‘Valor’, ‘Čačanska rodna’ and ‘Čačanska najbolja’, were investigated during 25 or 33 day periods. Fruit samples were analyzed for fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids content, fruit colour, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, sorbitol and sucrose), organic acids (malic, fumaric and shikimic acids), phenolics (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid and rutin) and anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-rutinoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside). Ripening resulted in statistically increased fruit weight and soluble solids, decreased fruit firmness, darker colour of fruits, increased concentration of total sugars, decreased concentration of total acids, and increased concentration of anthocyanins. There was no influence of ripening on the content of phenols. The results show significant influences of cultivar on fruit weight, soluble solids content, firmness, fruit colour, concentration of total acids, SUAC index, concentration of total phenols and anthocyanins in European plums.Food Chemistry 12/2008; 111(4-111):830-836. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.057