Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 attenuates hippocampal neuronal loss and cognitive dysfunction resulting from chronic restraint stress in ovariectomized rats.
ABSTRACT We have recently found that a combination of ovariectomy (OVX) and chronic restraint stress causes cognitive dysfunction and reduces hippocampal CA3 neurons in female rats and that estrogen replacement suppresses the OVX/stress-induced behavioral and morphological changes. In this study, we examined the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), a popular herbal supplement, on the cognitive dysfunction and neuromorphological change in OVX/stress-subjected rats. Female Fisher 344 rats were randomly divided into three groups: vehicle-treated OVX, EGb 761 (50 mg/kg) -treated OVX and vehicle-treated sham-operated control groups. Two months after ovariectomy, all animals received restraint stress for 21 days (6 h/day), and were then subjected to a novel object recognition test followed by morphological examination by Nissl staining. EGb 761 was orally administered once daily until the behavioral analysis was done. Treatment with EGb 761 improved memory impairment and neuronal loss of hippocampus in the OVX/stress-subjected group in the same ways as 17beta-estradiol. On the other hand, EGb 761 did not affect the loss of bone mineral density and increase in body weight after OVX, although 17beta-estradiol attenuated them. These results have important implications for neuroprotective and cognition enhancing effects of EGb 761 in postmenopausal women and suggest that the effects are mediated by a different mechanism from estrogen.
SourceAvailable from: Hideyuki Takeuchi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Amyloid β, a neurotoxic protein, causes disruption of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and induces cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. We previously revealed that fingolimod, a new oral immunosuppressant used to treat multiple sclerosis, ameliorates oligomeric amyloid β-induced neuronal damage via up-regulation of neuronal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we showed that oral administration of fingolimod ameliorated the impairment in object recognition memory and associative learning in mice injected with amyloid β. This effect was associated with restoration of normal BDNF expression levels in the cerebral cortices and hippocampi, suggesting that neuroprotection was mediated by up-regulation of neuronal BDNF levels. Therefore, fingolimod may provide therapeutic effects in patients with Alzheimer's disease.Behavioural brain research 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.03.046 · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The progressive nature of glaucoma and its growing incidence make its therapy an important target for research. The role of oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of glaucoma makes antioxidants such as saffron extract an attractive target for potential clinical use. Herein, we evaluate the effect of aqueous saffron extract on intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2014; 14(1):399. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-399 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract retards selenite-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rat pups. Methods: On postpartum day eight, Group I rat pups (n = 12) received an intraperitoneal injection of physiological saline. Groups II and III rat pups (n = 12) received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite. Group III also received an intraperitoneal injection of G. biloba extract once daily on postpartum days 9-14. Both eyes of each pup were examined from postpartum day 16 up to day 30. After sacrifice, encapsulated pup lens were analyzed for mean activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase. In addition, the mean concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde were analyzed in samples of lens and serum. Results: Dense lenticular opacification occurs 100% in Group II, but only minimal opacification occurs in three pups of Group III (25%), no opacification in 75% of Group III, none in Group I. Compared with Groups I and III, Group II rat showed lower lenticular antioxidant enzyme activity, lower level of GSH, and higher level of malondidehyde (mean ± standard deviation SD, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusions: The treatment with G. biloba extract is effective against oxidative stress - a crucial factor of cataractogenesis in rat pups, possibly by preventing depletion of antioxidant enzymes and by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.Current Eye Research 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/02713683.2014.980005 · 1.66 Impact Factor