Article

Open versus laparoscopic live donor Nephrectomy: A focus on the safety of donors and the need for a donor registry

Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 12/2007; 178(5):1860-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.07.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A review of the existing literature showed that the subject of live donor nephrectomy is a seat of underreporting and underestimation of complications. We provide a systematic comparison between laparoscopic and open live donor nephrectomy with special emphasis on the safety of donors and grafts.
The PubMed literature database was searched from inception to October 2006. A comparison was made between laparoscopic and open live donor nephrectomy regarding donor safety and graft efficacy.
The review included 69 studies. There were 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 prospective nonrandomized studies, 22 retrospective controlled studies, 26 large (greater than 100 donors), retrospective, noncontrolled studies, 8 case reports and 1 experimental study. Most investigators concluded that, compared to open live donor nephrectomy, laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy provides equal graft function, an equal rejection rate, equal urological complications, and equal patient and graft survival. Analgesic requirements, pain data, hospital stay and time to return to work are significantly in favor of the laparoscopic procedure. On the other hand, laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy has the disadvantages of increased operative time, increased warm ischemia time and increased major complications requiring reoperation. In terms of donor safety at least 8 perioperative deaths were recorded after laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy. These perioperative deaths were not documented in recent review articles. Ten perioperative deaths were reported with open live donor nephrectomy by 1991. No perioperative mortalities have been recorded following open live donor nephrectomy since 1991. Regarding graft safety, at least 15 graft losses directly related to the surgical technique of laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy were found but none was emphasized in recent review articles. The incidence of graft loss due to technical reasons in the early reports of open live donor nephrectomy was not properly documented in the literature.
We are in need of a live organ donor registry to determine the combined experience of complications and long-term outcomes, rather than short-term reports from single institutions. Like all other new techniques, laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy should be developed and improved at a few centers of excellence to avoid the loss of a donor or a graft.

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    • "Advantages of the laparoscopic technique include a decrease in morbidity, recovery time and postoperative pain, and better cosmesis [8] [9] [10]. In laparoscopic donor nephrectomy , because of the limited field of view, it is crucial to have detailed information on the vascular anatomy before surgery to avoid inadvertent vascular injuries [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the accuracy of 16-section multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) angiography in the preoperative evaluation of renal transplant donors in comparison with intra-operative findings.Patients and methodsIn this prospective study 89 consecutive renal donors (69 men and 20 women) underwent 16-MDCT angiography followed by open surgical donor nephrectomy from January 2008 to March 2010. We reported the number and origin of renal arteries and the presence of early branching arteries. Renal venous anatomy was evaluated for the presence of major and minor venous anomalies. The renal calyces and ureters were assessed with delayed excretory phase images. On a 3D workstation, images were evaluated by the radiologist and the urologist. These CT angiography results were compared with surgical findings.ResultsThe mean age of the donors was 31 years. Open donor nephrectomy was performed on the left in 52 and on the right in 37 subjects. At surgery, accessory renal arteries were found in 14 kidneys (double arteries to 13 kidneys and triple arteries to one kidney). CT and surgical findings agreed in 92% of subjects. Seven small accessory renal arteries in seven donors were missed by radiology reviewers. Early branching of the renal arteries was shown in 5 arteries, and CT matched surgical findings in 88 cases (99%). Renal vein anomalies were present in six subjects, three of them were missed with the preoperative CT. The major shortcoming of MDCT angiography was noted in identifying minor venous anatomy. The presence of discrepancies between pre-operative MDCT and the findings at surgery did not affect the clinical outcome of transplantation, except in one case where intra-operative surgical distress was noted due to failure in identifying multiple major renal veins.Conclusions16-MDCT angiography is a good modality in the pre-operative evaluation of live renal donors. However, it provides suboptimal information on renal vascular anatomy, particularly complex venous patterns. Surgeons should not rely fully on pre-operative CT angiography while performing donor nephrectomy.
    African Journal of Urology 03/2013; 19(1):7–12. DOI:10.1016/j.afju.2012.10.007
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    • "Shokeir concluded that LLDN has the disadvantages of increased operative time, increased warm ischemia time, and increased major complications requiring reoperation. It was difficult to analyze the results about perioperative mortality and graft loss due to technical reasons because they were reported mainly in old series and not in the recent ones [11]. Moreover, there is probably an underreporting of the unfavorable results of LLDN. "
    European Urology 10/2010; 58(4):510-1; discussion 512-3. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2010.05.005 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Absolute priority in an LDKT programme are donnor safety and kidney optimal anatomical and functional preservation. Reduced donnor morbidities, both at short and long term, are important objectives. Excellent technical grafting is a must as are the strategies employed for facilitatig it. We revised the incidences of our whole LDKT programme (40 years 243 donors) to confirm if these exigences have been acomplished or a change to new surgical procedures is recommended. Between 1968-2008 243 nephrectomies and grafting has been performed, a reduced number per year (A cadaver programme has been running simultaneously since 1964). For the nephrectomies a Turner-Warrick apprach was inititialy used and since 1973 a miniincisional, anterior, extraperitoneal approach of approximately 10 cm in length. The right kidney was removed in 75% of the cases and the right iliac area for the implant in 85% In adjacent opperating rooms, one team performs the nephrectomy while the other prepares and dissects free the grafting vessels. Most of the time the same senior surgeon performed both operatios: the nephrectomy and the implant. Peroperative and postoperative complications were evaluated by urologists and nephrologists in charge. No donors dead, organs lost or major complications in the donors have been documented. Minor complications such as intestinal paresia, wound infection, persistent incisional pain were common. Miniincisional abdominal approach reduced postoperative pain and hospital stay (4 days). At long term no incisional hernia or abdominal paresia have been documented. Simultaneous work reduces ischemia time (30-45 s warm: 30-45 min cold) and opperatig room occupation(patient preparation plus anesthesia plus operation) estimated in 90-120 min for the nephrectomy and 120-160 for the grafting. The responsibility of the senior surgeon in both procedures facilitates vessel selection for the grafting. No reasons have been found to reconvert our current nephrectomy procedure to laparoscopic or modify current surgical strategy. Superior safety of open surgery for donors and organs is confirmed. Pain and recovery time are reduced in laparoscopic surgery but not as much when compared with miniincisional approach. Open surgery permits optimal anatomical and functional organ extration facilitatig the quality of the implant. As numbers matter in laparoscopic surgery open nephrectomy is recommended for reduced LDKT programmes.
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