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    ABSTRACT: Determine the epidemiological profile of outbreaks of acute diarrheal disease caused by rotavirus (RV) occurring in pediatric patients, based on a critical review of the literature published between 2000 and 2010. A search was carried out for articles published from January 2000 to April 2010, collected by the Artemisa, EBSCO, Embase, Imbiomed, Lilacs, Ovid, PubMed, and Science Direct databases. In the studies that met the inclusion criteria, possible confounding factors were identified and risks of bias were attributed based on the number of items considered inadequate in each case. The epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of the outbreaks were described. The sample was comprised of only 14 (10.8%) of the 129 titles identified, which accounted for 91 092 reported cases of acute diarrhea. In 5 250 of these cases, a search for rotavirus was conducted, yielding 1 711 (32.5%) positive isolations. It was observed that the RV from Group A was the causative agent in 100% of the outbreaks, while genotype G9 was documented in 50% of the articles. Rotavirus, mainly serotype G9, was one of the principal agents responsible for outbreaks of acute diarrheal disease over the past decade. A careful outbreak study can contribute valuable information for RV disease control and prevention.
    Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 02/2012; 31(2):142-7. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using genetically engineered lactobacilli, producing high avidity llama VHH domains (referred to as anti-rotavirus proteins; ARPs), to test the effect of multimeric antibody fragments as prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection. Two ARPs, ARP1 and ARP3, shown to bind to different epitopes and act synergistically against rotavirus, were displayed on the surface of Lactobacillus paracasei as monovalent or bivalent proteins (mono- or bi-specific). Although a nonsignificant difference was observed between lactobacilli producing bispecific ARP3-ARP1 and monomeric ARPs, lactobacilli producing bispecific ARP3-ARP1 were superior at reducing the rate of diarrhea when used for prophylactic and therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of rotavirus infection in comparison to nontreated animals. Expression of bispecific antibodies in lactobacilli resulted in slight improvement of their efficacy. Furthermore, increasing the specificity would theoretically reduce the rate of appearance of viral escape mutants and would have a broader capacity to be effective against a range of viral serotypes.
    Future Microbiology 05/2011; 6(5):583-93. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Salento peninsula (Puglia Region, South-East Italy), underground waters are a fundamental resource for the population because they constitute the principal reservoir for drinking water and irrigation. They are, however, affected by overexploitation. The risk factors in the Salento arise mainly from anthropic activities, especially tourism and agriculture (leaking wells, sewage and inadequate waste disposal procedures). The Southern Salento is recognized to be at high risk of pathologies characterised by oral-faecal transmission. From 2001 to 2009 the incidence of typhoid fever in the Salento was 12.11/100,000 inhabitants as against 2.91 in Italy. Enteritis caused by rotaviruses is an important cause of hospitalization of paediatric-aged children in the Salento, with high social costs. An effective monitoring system for the conservation and management of water bodies and the protection of public health is therefore fundamental. The present study sought to determine the microbiological and chemical-physical quality of groundwater in the Salento and to analyse the factors associated with contamination. The results indicated widespread pollution from salt and microbial contamination. Contamination from faecal microorganisms posed a significant risk of human infection in 100% of samples. Furthermore, the water was unsuitable even for irrigation in a high percentage of cases (31.8%), which is of considerable significance given that agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in the area under study. The high salt concentration was probably due to excessive extraction of water for intensive irrigation, especially in summer. Under these circumstances, some of mitigation activity is necessary. Furthermore, it would be advisable to decrease the pollution load from anthropic activities in the territory and to reduce water consumption in order to conserve groundwater resources especially.
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11/2010; 13(1):192-200. · 2.09 Impact Factor

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