The increasing racial disparity in infant mortality rates: Composition and contributors to recent US trends
ABSTRACT We examined trends in birthweight-gestational age distributions and related infant mortality for African American and white women and calculated the estimated excess annual number of African American infant deaths.
Live births to US-resident mothers with a maternal race of white or African American were selected from the National Center for Health Statistics' linked live birth-infant death cohort files (1985-1988 and 1995-2000).
The racial disparity in infant mortality widened despite an increasing rate of white low-birthweight infants. White preterm infants had relatively greater gains in survival and the white advantage in survival at term increased. Annually, African American women experience approximately 3300 more infant deaths than would be expected.
The increasing US racial disparity in infant mortality is largely influenced by changes in birthweight-gestational age-specific mortality, rather than the birthweight-gestational age distribution. Improvement in the survival of white preterm and low-birthweight infants, probably reflecting advances in and changing access to medical technology, contributed appreciably to this trend.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiaohe Xu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prior research has identified a number of antecedents to infant mortality, but has been focused on either structural (demographic) forces or medical (public health) factors, both of which ignore potential cultural influences. Our study introduces a cultural model for explaining variations in infant mortality, one focused on the role of community-level religious factors. A key impetus for our study is well-established religious variations in adult mortality at the community level. Seeking to extend the growing body of research on contextual-level effects of religion, this study examines the impact of religious ecology (i.e., the institutional market share of particular denominational traditions) on county-level infant mortality in the U.S. Analyses of congregational census and Kids Count data reveal that a high prevalence of Catholic and most types of conservative Protestant churches are associated with lower rates of infant mortality when compared with counties that feature fewer Catholic and conservative Protestant congregations. However, communities with a large proportion of Pentecostal churches exhibit significantly higher infant mortality rates. After discussing the implications of these findings, we specify various directions for future research.12/2011; 2(4). DOI:10.3390/rel2030264
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality, consequently an important public health concern. Aim: This study aims to identify significant socio-economic and nutritional determinants associated with LBW in India. Materials and Methods: Data from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) of India was analyzed. A total of 20,946 women (15-49 years) who gave birth at least once 5 years preceding the NFHS-3 were included in this study. Infant's LBW (<2500 grams) as outcome variable was examined in association with all independent predictors as infant's sex, maternal household wealth status, caste, age, education, body mass index (BMI), stature, anemia level, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, antenatal care received, and living place. Results: Almost 20% of the infants were born with LBW. Mother's low education level, BMI <18.5, short stature (height <145 centimeters) and lack of antenatal visits (<4 visits) were significant predictors of LBW. Male gender has a protective effect against LBW. Conclusion: Maternal education, nutritional status and antenatal care received are key determinants that need to be addressed to reduce prevalence of LBW in India. Continue implementation of multifaceted health promotion interventions are needed to address these factors effectively. Keywords: Child′s birth weight, Infant, India, Low birth weight, Pregnancy07/2014; 6(7):302-308. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.136902
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A host of recent research has used the reweighting methods developed by DiNardo, Fortin, and Lemieux (1996) to analyze the extent to which between-group differences in outcomes are predicted by differences in the distribution of observable characteristics. Much less attention has been paid to isolating the roles of individual covariates in reweighting estimation. We analyze two approaches that have been used in previous studies, and we propose a new approach that can be viewed as a generalization of regression-based methods. We illustrate the differences between the methods using two Monte Carlo designs and an empirical analysis of black-white gaps in birth weight and infant mortality.Journal of Applied Econometrics 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/jae.2433 · 1.76 Impact Factor