Zhang H, Verkman AS. Aquaporin-4 independent Kir4.1 K+ channel function in brain glial cells. Mol Cell Neurosci 37: 1-10

Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0521, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.84). 02/2008; 37(1):1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2007.08.007
Source: PubMed


Functional interaction of glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 has been suggested from their apparent colocalization and biochemical interaction, and from the slowed glial cell K+ uptake in AQP4-deficient brain. Here, we report multiple lines of evidence against functionally significant AQP4-Kir4.1 interactions. Whole-cell patch-clamp of freshly isolated glial cells from brains of wild-type and AQP4 null mice showed no significant differences in membrane potential, barium-sensitive Kir4.1 K+ current or current-voltage curves. Single-channel patch-clamp showed no differences in Kir4.1 unitary conductance, voltage-dependent open probability or current-voltage relationship. Also, Kir4.1 protein expression and distribution were similar in wild-type and AQP4 null mouse brain and in the freshly isolated glial cells. Functional inhibition of Kir4.1 by barium or RNAi knock-down in primary glial cell cultures from mouse brain did not significantly alter AQP4 water permeability, as assayed by calcein fluorescence quenching following osmotic challenge. These studies provide direct evidence against functionally significant AQP4-Kir4.1 interactions in mouse glial cells, indicating the need to identify new mechanism(s) to account for altered seizure dynamics and extracellular space K+ buffering in AQP4 deficiency.

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    • "1K + current or current - voltage curves of glial cells of AQP4 null or wild - type mice , nor any difference in K ir 4 . 1 expression or distribution . Taken together , these results suggest that other glial cells or ion transporters , whose expression is modified by the absence of AQP4 , are recruited to modulate local , K + flux in neural signaling and excitation ( Zhang and Verkman , 2008 ) . Another hypothesis implicates an association with K ir 4 . 1 , bicarbonate transporters and AQP4 flux . "
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is a complex and devastating neurological condition with limited treatment options. Brain edema is a serious complication of stroke. Early edema formation can significantly contribute to infarct formation and thus represents a promising target. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels contribute to water homeostasis by regulating water transport and are implicated in several disease pathways. At least 7 AQP subtypes have been identified in the rodent brain and the use of transgenic mice has greatly aided our understanding of their functions. AQP4, the most abundant channel in the brain, is up-regulated around the peri-infarct border in transient cerebral ischemia and AQP4 knockout mice demonstrate significantly reduced cerebral edema and improved neurological outcome. In models of vasogenic edema, brain swelling is more pronounced in AQP4-null mice than wild-type providing strong evidence of the dual role of AQP4 in the formation and resolution of both vasogenic and cytotoxic edema. AQP4 is co-localized with inwardly rectifying K+-channels (Kir4.1) and glial K+ uptake is attenuated in AQP4 knockout mice compared to wild-type, indicating some form of functional interaction. AQP4-null mice also exhibit a reduction in calcium signaling, suggesting that this channel may also be involved in triggering pathological downstream signaling events. Associations with the gap junction protein Cx43 possibly recapitulate its role in edema dissipation within the astroglial syncytium. Other roles ascribed to AQP4 include facilitation of astrocyte migration, glial scar formation, modulation of inflammation and signaling functions. Treatment of ischemic cerebral edema is based on the various mechanisms in which fluid content in different brain compartments can be modified. The identification of modulators and inhibitors of AQP4 offer new therapeutic avenues in the hope of reducing the extent of morbidity and mortality in stroke.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2015; 9(34). DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00108 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    • "However, more recent studies did not support this idea, suggesting that some other mechanisms explaining the slower K+ reuptake in AQP4−/− tissue, e.g. reduced glial cell swelling and a larger extracellular space, might be involved [12], [43]. Strohschein and colleagues [12] further showed facilitated spatial buffering associated with enhanced glial coupling in AQP4−/− mice. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the primary cellular water channel in the brain and is abundantly expressed by astrocytes along the blood-brain barrier and brain-cerebrospinal fluid interfaces. Water transport via AQP4 contributes to the activity-dependent volume changes of the extracellular space (ECS), which affect extracellular solute concentrations and neuronal excitability. AQP4 is anchored by α-syntrophin (α-syn), the deletion of which leads to reduced AQP4 levels in perivascular and subpial membranes. We used the real-time iontophoretic method and/or diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to clarify the impact of α-syn deletion on astrocyte morphology and changes in extracellular diffusion associated with cell swelling in vitro and in vivo. In mice lacking α-syn, we found higher resting values of the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW) and the extracellular volume fraction (α). No significant differences in tortuosity (λ) or non-specific uptake (k'), were found between α-syn-negative (α-syn -/-) and α-syn-positive (α-syn +/+) mice. The deletion of α-syn resulted in a significantly smaller relative decrease in α observed during elevated K(+) (10 mM) and severe hypotonic stress (-100 mOsmol/l), but not during mild hypotonic stress (-50 mOsmol/l). After the induction of terminal ischemia/anoxia, the final values of ADCW as well as of the ECS volume fraction α indicate milder cell swelling in α-syn -/- in comparison with α-syn +/+ mice. Shortly after terminal ischemia/anoxia induction, the onset of a steep rise in the extracellular potassium concentration and an increase in λ was faster in α-syn -/- mice, but the final values did not differ between α-syn -/- and α-syn +/+ mice. This study reveals that water transport through AQP4 channels enhances and accelerates astrocyte swelling. The substantially altered ECS diffusion parameters will likely affect the movement of neuroactive substances and/or trophic factors, which in turn may modulate the extent of tissue damage and/or drug distribution.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68044. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068044 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Custom stealth RNAi for rat Kir6.2 sense: 5′-AUAUUCUGCACGAUCAGAAUAAGGA-3′, antisense: 5′-UCCUUAUUCUGAUCGUGCAGAAUAU-3′ and scrambled negative control siRNA, which does not interfere with any known mRNA, were purchased from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). H19-7 cells were transfected with siRNAs (25 nM) by using a transfection reagent (Lipofectamine RNAiMAX; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) in accordance with the manufacturer's protocol and as previously described [34], [35]. Briefly, gene-specific siRNA oligomers were diluted in a reduced serum medium (Opti-MEM I; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and mixed with the transfection reagent. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes can exacerbate seizures and worsen seizure-related brain damage. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the standard antiepileptic drug pregabalin (PGB) protects against pilocarpine-induced seizures and excitotoxicity in diabetes. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into either a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes group or a normal saline (NS) group. Both groups were further divided into subgroups that were treated intravenously with either PGB (15 mg/kg) or a vehicle; all groups were treated with subcutaneous pilocarpine (60 mg/kg) to induce seizures. To evaluate spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), PGB-pretreated rats were fed rat chow containing oral PGB (450 mg) for 28 consecutive days; vehicle-pretreated rats were fed regular chow. SRS frequency was monitored for 2 weeks from post-status epilepticus day 15. We evaluated both acute neuronal loss and chronic mossy fiber sprouting in the CA3 area. In addition, we performed patch clamp recordings to study evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in hippocampal CA1 neurons for both vehicle-treated rats with SRS. Finally, we used an RNA interference knockdown method for Kir6.2 in a hippocampal cell line to evaluate PGB's effects in the presence of high-dose ATP. We found that compared to vehicle-treated rats, PGB-treated rats showed less severe acute seizure activity, reduced acute neuronal loss, and chronic mossy fiber sprouting. In the vehicle-treated STZ rats, eEPSC amplitude was significantly lower after PGB administration, but glibenclamide reversed this effect. The RNA interference study confirmed that PGB could counteract the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP)-closing effect of high-dose ATP. By opening KATP, PGB protects against neuronal excitotoxicity, and is therefore a potential antiepileptogenic in diabetes. These findings might help develop a clinical algorithm for treating patients with epilepsy and comorbid metabolic disorders.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65154. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065154 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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