Unmet mental health needs in pediatric epilepsy: Insights
Kimberly Smitha, Prabha Siddartha, Bonnie Zimaa, Raman Sankarb, Wendy Mitchelld,
Rani Gowrinathane, Alan Shewmonc, Rochelle Caplana,*
aDepartment of Psychiatry, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
bDepartment of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
cDepartment of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
dDepartment of Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
eDepartment of Neurology, Kaiser–Permanente, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Received 23 January 2007; revised 12 May 2007; accepted 23 May 2007
Available online 17 September 2007
Eighteen pediatric neurologists and 18 pediatricians completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire on their knowledge of, attitudes
toward, and management of the behavioral, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects of pediatric epilepsy, before and after a lecture on this
topic. They also responded to questions about possible barriers to mental health care of children with epilepsy. The brief educational
intervention modified the knowledge/attitudes of pediatricians compared with pediatric neurologists on the impact of epilepsy on behav-
ior and cognition in children with epilepsy. However, there were no between-group differences in how providers perceived their compe-
tence to assess behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions in pediatric epilepsy. Responses to open-ended questions suggested
insufficient mental health coverage for and expertise on pediatric epilepsy, resistance of mental health clinicians to treat children with
epilepsy, and the stigma of mental health as possible barriers to mental health care in children with epilepsy. In addition to the need
for provider education about the behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions of pediatric epilepsy, these findings emphasize the impor-
tance of examining alternative routes to increasing mental health care for children with epilepsy.
? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Childhood epilepsy; Provider knowledge; Psychosocial; Mental health care; Behavior
Althoughepilepsy isacommon neurologicalcondition in
childhood , physicians have limited knowledge about and
ter of 50 general practitioners had not witnessed a seizure by
the time they qualified to practice medicine. Two-thirds felt
they gained most of their knowledge about epilepsy from
informal readings after their qualification .
In addition to knowledge about the neurological aspects
of epilepsy, physicians should also be aware of the high rate
of psychopathology [7–16] and unmet mental health needs
in this population [8,9,17–20]. However, many primary
care physicians report they lack expertise or have been
given inadequate training to assess children’s emotions
and behavior [6,21]. Their unfamiliarity with newer antiep-
ileptic drugs (AEDs)  and the effects of AEDs on cogni-
tion and behavior may represent an additional barrier to
these behavioral assessments.
Interestingly, and as found in pediatric chronic illness
[22–24], there is also little concordance between the percep-
tions of physicians and parents on the global, medical, and
mundane impact of epilepsy on children’s lives [25,26].
Thus, parents worry about how epilepsy affects children’s
1525-5050/$ - see front matter ? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
*Corresponding author. Address: Semel Institute for Neuroscience and
Human Behavior, Room 48-263, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA
90095-1759, USA. Fax: +1 310 206 4446.
E-mail address: email@example.com (R. Caplan).
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Epilepsy & Behavior 11 (2007) 401–408
behavior and learning, whereas pediatric neurologists
believe parents are concerned mainly about seizure control
and stigma [25,26]. These differences in perception between
physicians and parents, together with physicians’ lack of
knowledge of the impact of epilepsy on behavior , could
underlie infrequent mental health care referral of these
Furthermore, as found in the general population of chil-
dren with behavioral and emotional problems [28–31],
most parents of children with epilepsy lack knowledge on
the mental health needs of their children or might be reti-
cent to access such care [7,32]. Still, they need to be quite
assertive to obtain this care for their children, as demon-
strated in studies on children with chronic illness [33,34].
In fact, even when parents make such requests, physicians
agree to make these mental health referrals or record par-
ents’ requests for such referrals only if the child has severe
behavior problems, the parent has psychological problems,
the child reports a problem directly to the physician , or
both parents and physicians agree that the child has behav-
ior problems .
Yet, children in the general population are also often
reluctant to seek mental health care if it is not physician
or parent initiated . This might reflect the stigma asso-
ciated with mental health care  and the social stigma
related to epilepsy [7,39–41]. However, youth may also
not recognize the nature of their internalizing or externaliz-
ing problems . In addition, ethnic and cultural barriers
may also add to the reluctance of these children and their
parents to access mental health care [20,43–45].
The findings of the previously reviewed studies empha-
size the importance of examining what physicians know
about behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions in
pediatric epilepsy, their attitudes toward the need for men-
tal health services in these children, and how they assess
and manage the need for mental health services in their
patients with epilepsy. However, there is little research in
this area. Identifying providers’ knowledge of and attitudes
toward behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions in
pediatric epilepsy and gaining a better understanding of
possible barriers to mental health care may provide insights
into how to improve mental health care for these children.
Therefore, in this study, we compared knowledge of and
attitudes toward the behavioral and cognitive comorbid
conditions of epilepsy, as well as management practices
regarding mental health assessment and referrals in two
provider groups: pediatricians and pediatric neurologists.
In addition, we explored what providers perceive as barri-
ers to mental health care and if they are aware of cultural
differences regarding the stigma of mental health referrals
in children with epilepsy and their parents. After a brief
educational intervention in the form of a lecture on the
behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions as well as
psychosocial aspects of pediatric epilepsy, we determined
changes in physicians’ knowledge of, attitudes toward,
and management practices regarding the mental health
needs of these children.
We hypothesized that, both before and after the educa-
tional intervention, pediatric neurologists would know
more about how epilepsy affects children’s behavior and
learning than pediatricians. The pediatricians, therefore,
would learn more than the neurologists from the educa-
tional intervention. We posited that increased knowledge
would change attitudes toward and possibly provider
obstacles to the relevance of mental health problems in
children and adolescents with epilepsy in both provider
groups. Lastly, we predicted no change in provider mental
health care-related management practices immediately
after the talk (e.g., time spent on behavioral assessments,
interactions with mental health practitioners about their
epilepsy patients) in both provider groups.
We recruited 18 pediatric neurologists from the University of Califor-
nia, Los Angeles (UCLA), Division of Pediatric Neurology, Children’s
Hospital Los Angeles, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center County Hospi-
tal, and Kaiser Permanente–Sunset because of their large pediatric epi-
lepsy clinics. Recruitment sources for pediatricians included UCLA
Pediatric Department clinical faculty who work in outpatient clinics
and/or private practices, as well as the Woodland Hill Kaiser Permanente.
Approval from the UCLA institutional review board was obtained prior
to participant recruitment.
Our research team invited providers to participate in this study by tele-
phone. Of the 152 pediatricians contacted, 18 pediatricians participated in
the study and 134 declined participation for the following reasons: lack of
knowledge about epilepsy (n = 2), lack of interest in the topic (n = 7),
scheduling conflicts (n = 13), planned retirement (n = 9), and no other rea-
son given (n = 121). As many pediatricians did not return phone calls,
despite being called several times, we were unable to ascertain why they
did not call back initially.
2.2.1. Provider questionnaire
The questionnaire is a 39-item instrument designed to measure pro-
vider knowledge of, attitudes toward, and management practices regard-
ing the behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions of children with
epilepsy. The providers rated items on a 5-point Likert-type severity or fre-
Broad topics measuring provider knowledge included (Table 1): (1)
effects of epilepsy on behavior and cognition/learning, (2) association of
behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions in pediatric epilepsy with
seizure and psychosocial variables, (3) possible cognitive and behavioral
adverse effects of AEDs, and (4) drugs used to treat common child behav-
ior problems. Questions on provider attitude included (Table 2): (1) pro-
viders’ perception of parent’s main concern for their child with epilepsy,
(2) providers’ comfort level assessing mental health needs and prescribing
psychotropic drugs for children with epilepsy, (3) providers’ perceptions of
the benefits of mental health assessment and treatment for these children,
and (4) providers’ awareness of cultural barriers to mental health care for
children with epilepsy.
Questions assessing provider mental health care-related management
practices included (Table 3): (1) time available for intake and follow-up
examination, (2) inclusion of behavioral assessments in these examina-
tions, (3) adequacy of provider training to conduct behavioral assess-
ments, and (4) provider mental health care referral practices, such as
K. Smith et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior 11 (2007) 401–408
Provider responses to questions on knowledge of behavioral and cognitive/learning comorbid conditions before and after lecture
PrePost Pre Post
Proportion of children needing behavioral assessment, M (SD)
Cause of comorbid condition, %
Biological and environmental
2.76 (0.92) 1.78 (0.89)2.33 (1.30) 1.53 (0.80)
Most frequent types of psychiatric disorders, %
Proportion of children needing assessment of learning skills, M (SD)
Relationship of behavior difficulties to seizure control, M (SD)
Adolescents have frequent suicidal ideation, M (SD)
Stigma and seizure control are child’s only problems, M (SD)
Behavioral and cognitive side effects of AEDs, M (SD)
Association of learning and behavior problems, M (SD)
Stress associated with social, academic, and familial problems, M (SD)
Differential diagnosis of tired, listless, and apathetic child with epilepsy, M (SD)
High doses of AEDs
Include questions on children’s behavior in initial assessment, M (SD)1.61 (0.78) 1.47 (0.80) 2.56 (1.15)2.31 (1.04)
Provider responses to questions on provider attitude regarding child’s main problems and mental health care before and after lecture
Comfort using stimulants, SSRIs, neuroleptics, M (SD)
Parents’ greatest wish for their child, M (SD)
No behavior problems
No learning problems
Acceptance/reluctance of mental health referral by parents, %
Proportion of children who should have behavioral assessment, M (SD) 1.61 (0.98)1.44 (0.62)1.82 (1.07) 1.35 (0.79)
Main obstacle to mental health services for pediatric epilepsy, M (SD)
Provider awareness of cultural barriers for mental health care, %
K. Smith et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior 11 (2007) 401–408
type of mental health care consultants used, consultant availability, con-
tact with these practitioners following the consults, and perceived useful-
ness of mental health practitioner assessments and feedback.
2.2.2. Open-ended questions
Providers also responded to open-ended questions in which they elab-
orated on their personal perspectives regarding the importance of behav-
ioral assessments and treatment of psychiatric disorders in children with
epilepsy. These questions queried providers’ awareness of possible obsta-
cles to mental health care including: (1) stigma of a mental health referral
in parents of different ethnicities, (2) parental resistance to mental health
referrals, (3) difficulties parents face obtaining mental health care, and
(4) provider confidence regarding the benefit of mental health care for
these children. In addition to providing a fixed response option of ‘‘yes/
no,’’ the open-ended items had additional lines provided for the respon-
dents to elaborate on their answers.
This study was conducted in accordance with the policies of the
Human Subjects Protection Committees of UCLA. Once providers were
successfully contacted and agreed to participate in the study, they were
given details about the educational intervention and queried about the
most convenient time for the lecture to be held. Informed consent was
obtained from all participants prior to the educational intervention.
Providers attended a 50-minute lecture on the cognitive and behavioral
comorbid conditions of pediatric epilepsy, as well as related biological and
psychosocial factors, given by a pediatric neuropsychiatrist with clinical
and research experience in pediatric epilepsy (R.C.).
Before the lecture, participants spent 10–15 minutes completing the
provider questionnaire. Immediately after the talk, they again completed
the same questionnaire.
2.4. Data analysis
Items from the provider questionnaire were grouped together into four
broad domains. They included provider knowledge/attitude, training,
assessment of behavior and cognition, and perception of obstacles to men-
tal health care. Principal component analysis was conducted for measures
within each domain to obtain a reduced number of outcome measures that
could be compared pre- and postintervention and across groups (pediatri-
cian vs pediatric neurologist).
To examine the effect of the educational intervention, as well as differ-
ences in provider ratings, mixed effects models were estimated with factor
scores as the dependent variable. The between-subject factor was type of
provider (pediatricians vs pediatric neurologist), and time (before vs after
intervention) was the within-subject factor. The interaction provider
type · time was also included in the model, to determine if only one type
of provider changed as a result of the intervention. A 0.05 level of signif-
icance was adopted.
3.1. Principal component analysis
Tables 1–3 list providers’ ratings (means (SD) and per-
centages) of questionnaire items on knowledge, attitude,
and management practices, respectively, before and after
the lecture. The principal components analysis for the
knowledge/attitude domain revealed six components with
the following loadings: knowledge about the rate of behav-
ioral (0.84) and cognitive (0.85) comorbid conditions in
pediatric epilepsy; seizure control (0.78) and its relationship
with behavior and learning disturbances (0.92); frequent
psychiatric diagnoses (0.65) and behavioral effects of AEDs
(0.73) in pediatric epilepsy; behavioral impact of cognition
(0.58), AEDs (0.57), and suicidality (0.58); parental con-
cerns for their children (0.90); and the role of stress in sei-
The training domain included provider use of selective
serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (0.86), antipsychotic
drugs (0.81), and stimulants (0.62) and feelings of compe-
tence to assess behavior (0.80) and learning (0.66) in chil-
dren with epilepsy. The provider assessment of behavior
and cognition domain had two components. The first com-
ponent incorporated the frequency with which providers
include questions on behavior and learning in initial
(0.86) and follow-up (0.89) examinations of children with
epilepsy and how much time they allotted to these evalua-
Provider responses to questions on provider mental health care-related management practices before and after lecture
Time for intake visit, M (SD)
Time for follow-up visit, M (SD)
Enough time for behavioral assessment, M (SD)
Includes questions on behavior in initial and follow-up assessments, M (SD)
Adequate training to assess and treat behavior problems, M (SD)
Enough training to assess and treat learning problems, M (SD)
Referral sources for children with behavior problems, %
Ongoing working relationship with a consulting psychologist, M (SD)
Ongoing working relationship with a consulting child psychiatrist, M (SD)
Parents refuse to accept mental health assessment or treatment, M (SD)
Feedback/communication with consultants on children’s condition, M (SD)
Feedback modifies provider’s treatment of child, M (SD)
Children benefit from mental health assessments, M (SD)
K. Smith et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior 11 (2007) 401–408
tions (intake, ?0.76; follow-up, ?0.69). The second com-
ponent included provider mental health referral practices
in terms of whom they referred to (0.76) and if they
obtained (0.81) and used (0.86) feedback from these
The obstacle domain had three components. The first
loaded on provider perception of parental resistance to
mental health referrals (0.92) and cultural stigma to mental
health care (0.82). The second loaded on provider opinion
regarding the benefit of mental health care assessments for
children with epilepsy (0.82) and the likelihood that provid-
ers would refer children for such assessments if parents are
resistant (0.80). The third component loaded on the likeli-
hood that parents would accept a mental health referral for
their children (0.88) and provider satisfaction with the time
available for assessing behavior in these children (0.60).
3.2. Between-group differences and intervention effects
The mixed effects models comparing knowledge/attitude
in the provider groups revealed that pediatricians learned
significantly more about the rate of comorbid behavioral
F(1,32) = 4.33, P < 0.04), in addition to the behavioral
impact of cognition, AEDs, and suicidality (occupa-
tion · time: F(1,32) = 3.95, P < 0.05), than pediatric neu-
rologists after the lecture. Following the lecture, however,
knowledge on the interaction of stress, AEDs, and seizure
control (time: F(1,32) = 11.45, P < 0.002) increased in both
With respect to behavioral and cognitive assessments,
pediatric neurologists were significantly more aware than
pediatricians of the importance of these assessments, as
well as the need for feedback to and from mental health
consultants (occupation: F(1,32) = 13.28, P < 0.0009).
There were no significant between-group differences or
changes in provider knowledge about the relationship of
seizure control to behavior and learning disturbances.
There were also no significant between-group differences
or changes in provider knowledge of parental concerns
regarding the impact of epilepsy on their children’s lives,
such as seizure control, behavior problems, and learning
The mixed effects model results for the provider training
factor indicated no significant occupation, time, or occupa-
tion · time effects. In the provider management practice
domain, the mixed effects model indicated that pediatric
neurologists inquired about behavior and learning in initial
and follow-up examinations of children with epilepsy and
provided more time to complete their evaluations than
pediatricians (occupation: F(1,32) = 16.18, P < 0.0003).
There were no significant differences in the second compo-
nent (i.e., mental health referral practices) by occupation,
following the lecture, and no interaction effect of these
In the mental health obstacles domain, the mixed effects
models demonstrated the following: pediatric neurologists
(occupation · time:
were significantly more aware than pediatricians of paren-
tal resistance to and the cultural stigma associated with
mental health care in children with epilepsy (occupation:
F(1,28) = 11.35, P < 0.002). The pediatricians, more often
than the pediatric neurologists, thought that parents would
resist mental health referrals and that there is little benefit
from these referrals (occupation: F(1,28) = 4.09, P < 0.05).
Following the lecture, however, pediatric neurologists and
pediatricians thought parents were less likely to resist these
referrals (time: F(1,28) = 6.22, P < 0.02). Pediatricians,
however, thought there was adequate time to conduct
tion · time: F(1,28) = 5.15, P < 0.03).
3.3. Open-ended questions
The pediatric neurologists reported great difficulty pro-
viding for the mental health needs of their epilepsy
patients. They cited insufficient mental health care coverage
by insurance companies and government agencies, lack of
mental health care professionals with expertise in pediatric
epilepsy, and resistance by child psychiatrists and other
mental health care clinicians to assessment and treatment
of children with epilepsy as reasons for this difficulty. Addi-
tional obstacles included lack of bilingual mental health
care providers and cultural barriers associated with the
stigma of mental health care in African-American, His-
panic, Asian, and Middle Eastern families. Although the
majority of providers reported that they would make men-
tal health referrals irrespective of parents’ reluctance, pro-
viders acknowledged that parental discretion determined
whether or not they would proceed with the referral for
their child. Finally, with respect to educational enrichment,
both pediatric neurologists and pediatricians made it clear
that they did not have time to read papers or manuals,
watch videotapes, or attend lectures to increase their
knowledge on the psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in
As predicted, the educational intervention was effective
in delivering knowledge about the impact of epilepsy on
behavior and learning, the high rates of comorbid mental
health and learning problems, suicidality, and the possible
role of cognition and AEDs in behavior and learning in
these children. Both provider groups also became signifi-
cantly more aware of the interactions among stress, behav-
ioral and cognitive side effects of AEDs, poor seizure
control, and behavioral comorbid conditions in youth fol-
lowing the lecture. Of note, pediatric neurologists and pedi-
atricians thought parents were less resistant to mental
health referrals after but not before the lecture.
As found in pediatric chronic illness [22,23] and in the
general population of children , the providers were una-
ware of the great need for mental health referrals in chil-
dren with epilepsy. Increase in their knowledge following
K. Smith et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior 11 (2007) 401–408
the brief educational intervention is encouraging for two
reasons. First, primary care physicians report they lack
knowledge and expertise both on epilepsy [2–5] and on
emotions and behavior in children without epilepsy
[6,21]. Second, both specialists and pediatricians are impor-
tant facilitators for the delivery of mental health services in
children [33,35,36]. Therefore, increasing their knowledge
of the high risk of psychopathology and the unmet mental
health needs among these children is essential.
Interestingly, despite their apparent lack of knowledge,
both provider groups perceived themselves as competent
to assess behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions in
children with epilepsy. This finding goes hand-in-hand with
the high rates of prescribing psychotropic drugs, such as
stimulants and SSRIs, by pediatricians . Nevertheless,
compared with the pediatricians, the pediatric neurologists
were more likely to refer children to mental health care,
more aware of parental resistance to and the cultural
stigma associated with mental health referrals, and more
cognizant of the benefit from mental health referrals for
these children. Therefore, improving provider knowledge
and awareness of the behavioral and learning comorbid
conditions of pediatric epilepsy is an important, albeit first,
step to reduce provider-based obstacles to mental health
care for children with epilepsy, especially in primary care.
To further understand possible obstacles to mental
health care for these children, we explored how providers
perceive parents’ main concerns for children. In contrast
toprevious reports on
[25,26,48,49] and chronic illness [36,50], we did not confirm
that providers described parents as more concerned by ill-
ness variables (e.g., seizure control) than by illness-related
behavioral and learning problems. Given the study’s small
sample size, this finding needs to be replicated in a large
representative sample of both pediatric neurologists and
On the basis of the open-ended questions, the pediatric
neurologists stated that limited resources (e.g., insurance
coverage, expertise) for mental health services and lack of
mental health professionals with expertise in pediatric epi-
lepsy were important barriers to mental health care in pedi-
atric epilepsy. Inadequate or insufficient medical insurance
[51–53] and available professional expertise  have also
been described as potential structural barriers to mental
health care for children with chronic illness.
Although open-ended questions are not applicable to
quantitative data analysis, the responses of providers to
these questions, together with our quantitative findings,
highlighted several issues that have relevant policy implica-
tions. First, it is important to determine how best to ensure
financial coverage for the assessment and treatment of the
comorbid behavioral, cognitive, and linguistic problems
found in children with new-onset and chronic epilepsy with
average [8,9,54–58] or low [59–61] intelligence quotient
Second, in addition to increasing the number of child
psychiatry and psychology clinicians with expertise in pedi-
atric epilepsy, educating child mental health clinicians
about epilepsy and the associated behavioral and cognitive
comorbid conditions might be a first step in increasing their
willingness to work with these children. Third, our findings
suggest that there is a need to increase provider knowledge
about the behavioral and cognitive comorbid conditions as
well as the psychosocial aspects of epilepsy. However, it is
unclear who should get this training (pediatricians or pedi-
atric neurologists), as well as when and how should it be
delivered. The pediatricians’ resistance to enroll in this
study, the open-ended responses indicating lack of time
and interest in epilepsy, and prior findings demonstrating
limited provider knowledge [62,63] underscore the need
for other methods to educate providers about the impact
of epilepsy on the lives of children and their families. Alter-
natively, educating parents about the need to assess the
behavioral, cognitive, and linguistic comorbid conditions
of pediatric epilepsy may facilitate mental health service
delivery for their children, given the role parents play in
obtaining mental health care referrals from providers for
their children [33,36].
Fourth, in both their quantitative and open-ended
responses, providers acknowledged that the combined
stigma of epilepsy and mental health might deter minority
parents from mental health referrals. Although there is evi-
dence for the stigma of mental illness  and epilepsy
[7,39–41], there have been no studies to date on the com-
bined stigma of epilepsy and mental illness and whether
it prevents children with epilepsy and their parents from
seeking mental health care. In addition, evidence for vari-
able cultural awareness of both epilepsy  and mental ill-
ness [20,43,44] across ethnic groups emphasizes the
importance of identifying the best way to deliver culturally
sensitive information about epilepsy and its mental health
comorbid conditions to children with epilepsy and their
Results from this study should be interpreted cau-
tiously because of the difficulty we encountered recruiting
pediatricians for this study. Although we designed the
study to accommodate providers’ schedules, most of them
did not return phone calls or showed minimal interest in
enhancing their education on this topic. This phenomenon
suggests that limited knowledge of, time for, and interest
in epilepsy may represent a serious barrier to mental
health referrals of these children. In fact, Traynor et al.
 purported that there needs to be more recognition
of the time practitioners put into surveys and that
researchers need to consider the additional demands these
place on their already busy lives.
Other study limitations include the cross-sectional study
design and associated lack of information on whether the
changes in provider knowledge and attitudes after the edu-
cational intervention were transient or consistent. In addi-
tion, the small sample size of providers underscores the
preliminary nature of the study’s findings and the need
for replication in larger representative samples of both
pediatricians and pediatric neurologists.
K. Smith et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior 11 (2007) 401–408
Despite these limitations and the preliminary nature of
our findings, they represent a first step toward determin-
ing obstacles to mental health care, particularly with
respect to the role of providers, in the unmet mental
health needs of children with epilepsy. Although our
findings indicate a need to increase provider knowledge,
they also suggest that this might not be the best way
to secure mental health care for children with epilepsy.
Given the complex interaction among provider (i.e.,
expertise), illness severity/disability, psychosocial, cul-
tural, and funding variables in determining access to
mental health care for children with epilepsy, future
large-scale studies are warranted. Such studies should
examine the likelihood of achieving this goal through
alternative routes, such as providing funding for mental
health care, increasing parents’ awareness of the need
for mental health care, as well as incorporating modules
on epilepsy and its comorbid conditions into the training
programs of pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, and
child mental health clinicians.
This study was supported by Shire Targeted Grant
NS32070 (R.C.). We appreciate the assistance of Marion
Belinda Tucker, Ph.D., Alfred Pennisi, M.D., Joyce Wu,
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