Invasive mediastinal staging of lung cancer - ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition)
ABSTRACT The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is determined by accurate definition of the stage. If there are no distant metastases, the status of the mediastinal lymph nodes is critical. Although imaging studies can provide some guidance, in many situations invasive staging is necessary. Many different complementary techniques are available.
The current guidelines and medical literature that are applicable to this issue were identified by computerized search and were evaluated using standardized methods. Recommendations were framed using the approach described by the Health and Science Policy Committee of the American College of Chest Physicians.
Performance characteristics of invasive staging interventions are defined. However, a direct comparison of these results is not warranted because the patients selected for these procedures have been different. It is crucial to define patient groups, and to define the need for an invasive test and selection of the best test based on this.
In patients with extensive mediastinal infiltration, invasive staging is not needed. In patients with discrete node enlargement, staging by CT or positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is not sufficiently accurate. The sensitivity of various techniques is similar in this setting, although the false-negative (FN) rate of needle techniques is higher than that for mediastinoscopy. In patients with a stage II or a central tumor, invasive staging of the mediastinal nodes is necessary. Mediastinoscopy is generally preferable because of the higher FN rates of needle techniques in the setting of normal-sized lymph nodes. Patients with a peripheral clinical stage I NSCLC do not usually need invasive confirmation of mediastinal nodes unless a PET scan finding is positive in the nodes. The staging of patients with left upper lobe tumors should include an assessment of the aortopulmonary window lymph nodes.
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ABSTRACT: The management of early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has improved recently due to advances in surgical and radiation modalities. Minimally-invasive procedures like Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy decreases the morbidity of surgery, while the numerous methods of staging the mediastinum such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsies are helping to achieve the objectives much more effectively. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) has become the frontrunner as the standard of care in medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients, and has also been branded as tolerable and highly effective. Ongoing researches using SABR are continuously validating the optimal dosing and fractionation schemes, while at the same time instituting its role for both inoperable and operable patients.Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics 02/2015; 32(1):8-16. DOI:10.5152/balkanmedj.2015.15553 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After the diagnosis Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) has been established, consideration must turn toward the stage of disease, because this will impact directly on management and prognosis. Staging is used to predict survival and to guide the patient toward the most appropriate treatment regimen or clinical trial. Distinguishing malignant involvement of the mediastinal lymph nodes (N2 or N3) from the hilar lymph nodes, or no lymph nodes (N0 or N1) is critical, because malignant involvement of N2 or N3 lymph nodes usually indicates non-surgically resectable disease. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare CT versus integrated F18-FDG PET/low dose CT (FDG PET/CT) for mediastinal staging in NSCLC, and the desire was to safely distinguish between malignant and benign lesions without the need for invasive procedures. All results were controlled for reproducibility. 114 participants with NSCLC were included in a prospective cohort study. Blinded CT and FDG PET/CT images were reviewed. The participants' mediastinums were staged based on lymph node sizes (CT), or on FDG uptake (FDG PET/CT). Reference standard was tissue sampling. We found that there was no measureable difference between CT and FDG PET/CT mediastinal staging results; overall two-thirds of the participants in the study were correctly staged, and almost one-third of the participants were falsely staged. Neither CT nor FDG PET/CT could obviate the need for further invasive staging prior to thoracotomy in patients with NSCLC; for that purpose, the results of both modalities were too meagre. Therefore, these patients still depend on invasive staging methods. In our study, invasive staging was accomplished by mediastinoscopy. However, today this is increasingly replaced by EBUS or EUS.Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society 01/2014; 14(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1470-7330-14-23 · 1.29 Impact Factor