Noninvasive staging of non-small cell lung cancer: ACCP evidenced-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
ABSTRACT Correctly staging lung cancer is important because the treatment options and the prognosis differ significantly by stage. Several noninvasive imaging studies including chest CT scanning and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning are available. Understanding the test characteristics of these noninvasive staging studies is critical to decision making.
Test characteristics for the noninvasive staging studies were updated from the first iteration of the lung cancer guidelines using systematic searches of the MEDLINE, HealthStar, and Cochrane Library databases up to May 2006, including selected metaanalyses, practice guidelines, and reviews. Study designs and results are summarized in evidence tables.
The pooled sensitivity and specificity of CT scanning for identifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis were 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47 to 54%) and 85% (95% CI, 84 to 88%), respectively, confirming that CT scanning has limited ability either to rule in or exclude mediastinal metastasis. For PET scanning, the pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity for identifying mediastinal metastasis were 74% (95% CI, 69 to 79%) and 85% (95% CI, 82 to 88%), respectively. These findings demonstrate that PET scanning is more accurate than CT scanning. If the clinical evaluation in search of metastatic disease is negative, the likelihood of finding metastasis is low.
CT scanning of the chest is useful in providing anatomic detail, but the accuracy of chest CT scanning in differentiating benign from malignant lymph nodes in the mediastinum is poor. PET scanning has much better sensitivity and specificity than chest CT scanning for staging lung cancer in the mediastinum, and distant metastatic disease can be detected by PET scanning. With either test, abnormal findings must be confirmed by tissue biopsy to ensure accurate staging.
Article: The role of convex probe endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of malignant mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the diagnosis of malignant lymph nodes (LNs) and staging of lung cancer, sampling of mediastinal and hilar LNs is essential. Mediastinoscopy is known as the gold standard. Convex probe (CP) endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a noninvasive and highly sensitive diagnostic method in mediastinal and hilar LN sampling. Evaluating the role of CP-EBUS-guided TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar LNs suspicious of malignancy. One hundred twenty patients with a known lung malignancy or hilar/mediastinal LNs detected by thoracic computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET)-CT suspicious for malignancy were included in this prospective study. The procedure was performed by Olympus 7.5 MHz CP endoscope and EU C2000 processor by the oral route under topical anesthesia and conscious sedation. After visualization of LNs, their dimensions were recorded. Aspiration was considered as "insufficient" if there were inadequate lymphocytes on the smears. Diagnosis of "malignancy" on cytologic examination was considered as the "final diagnosis". If diagnosis was negative for malignancy, more invasive procedures were performed to confirm the diagnosis. Twenty four females and 96 male patients (mean age, 57.8 ± 9.1) were included. A total of 177 LN stations were aspirated in 120 patients. In 82 patients, the diagnosis was malignant by EBUS-guided TBNA and in the remaining 38; the diagnosis was established by further invasive procedures. Of the 38 EBUS-guided TBNA negative patients, 28 were diagnosed as non-malignant and 10 were malignant. The sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy and negative predictive value of CP EBUS-guided TBNA were 89.1%, 91.6% and 73.6%, respectively. No major complications were seen. As an alternative method to mediastinoscopy, EBUS-guided TBNA is a safe and noninvasive procedure with high sensitivity in the diagnosis of malignant mediastinal LNs.Iranian Journal of Radiology 11/2012; 9(4):183-9. · 0.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc), invasive mediastinal staging is typically used to guide treatment decision-making. Here, we present clinical practice guideline recommendations for invasive mediastinal staging in nsclc patients who have been staged T1-4, N0-3, with no distant metastases. Draft recommendations were formulated based on the best available evidence gathered by a systematic review and a consensus of expert opinion. The draft recommendations underwent an internal review by clinical and methodology experts, and an external review by clinical practitioners through a survey assessing the clinical relevance and overall quality of the guideline. Feedback from the internal and external reviews was integrated into the clinical practice guideline. In general, most clinical experts agreed with the guideline, approving it for methodologic rigour. More than 80% of the surveyed practitioners gave it a high quality rating. The expert reviewers also provided written comments, with some of the suggested changes being incorporated into the final version of the guideline. In the clinical practice guideline, invasive mediastinal staging of nsclc is recommended in all cases except those involving patients with normal-sized lymph nodes, negative combine positron-emission tomography and computed tomography, and peripheral clinical stage 1A tumour. When performing mediastinoscopy, 5 nodal stations (2R/L, 4R/L, and 7) should routinely be examined.Current Oncology 12/2011; 18(6):e304-10. · 2.47 Impact Factor
Article: Nodal stations and diagnostic performances of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are no accurate data on the relationship between nodal station and diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). We evaluated the impact of nodal station and size on the diagnostic performance of EBUS-TBNA in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Consecutive patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA of mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes for staging or diagnosis of NSCLC were included in this retrospective study. Between May 2009 and February 2010, EBUS-TBNA was performed in 373 mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in 151 patients. The overall diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and negative predictive value (NPV) of EBUS-TBNA were 91.6%, 98.6%, 93.8%, and 84.3%, respectively. NPV of the left side nodal group was significantly lower than those of the other groups (P = 0.047) and sensitivity of the left side nodal group tended to decrease (P = 0.096) compared with those of the other groups. Diagnostic sensitivity and NPV of 4L lymph node were 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively. However, diagnostic performances of EBUS-TBNA did not differ according to nodal size. Bronchoscopists should consider the impact of nodal stations on diagnostic performances of EBUS-TBNA.Journal of Korean medical science 01/2012; 27(1):46-51. · 0.84 Impact Factor