[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Although the mechanisms of RSV-induced airway disease remain incompletely defined, the lung inflammatory response is thought to play a central pathogenetic role. In the past few years, we and others have provided increasing evidence of a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as important regulators of RSV-induced cellular signaling leading to the expression of key proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines. In addition, RSV-induced oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between ROS production and airway antioxidant defenses, due to a widespread inhibition of antioxidant enzyme expression, is likely to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of RSV-associated lung inflammatory disease, as demonstrated by a significant increase in markers of oxidative injury, which correlate with the severity of clinical illness, in children with RSV infection. Modulation of ROS production and oxidative stress therefore represents a potential novel pharmacological approach to ameliorate RSV-induced lung inflammation and its long-term consequences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary infections can impair alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), contributing to formation of lung edema. Effects of influenza A virus (IAV) on AFC are unknown.
To determine effects of IAV infection on AFC, and to identify intercellular signaling mechanisms underlying influenza-mediated inhibition of AFC.
BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with influenza A/WSN/33 (10,000 or 2,500 focus-forming units per mouse). AFC was measured in anesthetized, ventilated mice by instilling 5% bovine serum albumin into the dependent lung.
Infection with high-dose IAV resulted in a steady decline in arterial oxygen saturation and increased lung water content. AFC was significantly inhibited starting 1 hour after infection, and remained suppressed through Day 6. AFC inhibition at early time points (1-4 h after infection) did not require viral replication, whereas AFC inhibition later in infection was replication-dependent. Low-dose IAV infection impaired AFC for 10 days, but induced only mild hypoxemia. High-dose IAV infection increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ATP and UTP levels. Impaired AFC at Day 2 resulted primarily from reduced amiloride-sensitive AFC, mediated by increased activation of the pyrimidine-P2Y purinergic receptor axis. However, an additional component of AFC impairment was due to activation of A(1) adenosine receptors and stimulation of increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator-mediated anion secretion. Finally, IAV-mediated inhibition of AFC at Day 2 could be reversed by addition of beta-adrenergic agonists to the AFC instillate.
AFC inhibition may be an important feature of early IAV infection. Its blockade may reduce the severity of pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with influenza pneumonia.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2008; 178(9):969-76. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the multiple organ disorders caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), acute lung failure following atypical pneumonia is the most serious and often fatal event. We hypothesized that two of the hydrophilic structural coronoviral proteins (S and E) would regulate alveolar fluid clearance by decreasing the cell surface expression and activity of amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium (Na(+)) channels (ENaC), the rate-limiting protein in transepithelial Na(+) vectorial transport across distal lung epithelial cells. Coexpression of either S or E protein with human alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC in Xenopus oocytes led to significant decreases of both amiloride-sensitive Na(+) currents and gamma-ENaC protein levels at their plasma membranes. S and E proteins decreased the rate of ENaC exocytosis and either had no effect (S) or decreased (E) rates of endocytosis. No direct interactions among SARS-CoV E protein with either alpha- or gamma-ENaC were indentified. Instead, the downregulation of ENaC activity by SARS proteins was partially or completely restored by administration of inhibitors of PKCalpha/beta1 and PKCzeta. Consistent with the whole cell data, expression of S and E proteins decreased ENaC single-channel activity in oocytes, and these effects were partially abrogated by PKCalpha/beta1 inhibitors. Finally, transfection of human airway epithelial (H441) cells with SARS E protein decreased whole cell amiloride-sensitive currents. These findings indicate that lung edema in SARS infection may be due at least in part to activation of PKC by SARS proteins, leading to decreasing levels and activity of ENaC at the apical surfaces of lung epithelial cells.
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